Sex estimation from reconstructed scapula models using discriminant function analysis in the Malaysian population

Normaliza Omar, Siti Hanum Mohd Ali, Mohamed Swarhib Shafie, Nik Azuan Nik Ismail, Helmi Hadi, Rosnah Ismail, Faridah Mohd. Nor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Scapulae have been widely studied for its potential in differentiating sex in skeletal remains, especially when traditionally used sexually dimorphic bones were not available. The present work aimed to investigate sexual dimorphism of scapulae, and to develop and validate the population-specific metric standards of the Malaysian population using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) scapula models. Each scapula was measured for five variables with a digital caliper and analysed for independent T-test and discriminant analysis, where a leave-one-out cross-validation was applied. Moreover, a set of different samples (hold-out sample) was used to validate the established discriminant functions (DF). Consequently, all measurements showed significant differences between males and females (p < 0.001) and morphological breadth was discovered as the most sexually dimorphic scapulae measurements. Six DFs with classification accuracy ranging from 84.4% to 93.1% were generated. From the functions, stepwise DF predicted the highest classification accuracy. Additionally, the stepwise DF exhibited 95% classification accuracy when tested on the hold-out sample compared to univariate DFs which showed 82.5–92.5% accuracy. In conclusion, the virtual 3D scapulae models were sexually dimorphic, and the discriminant functions were significant in identifying skeletonized remains using scapulae bone in the Malaysian population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAustralian Journal of Forensic Sciences
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Scapula
Discriminant Analysis
Population
Bone and Bones
Sex Characteristics

Keywords

  • discriminant function analysis
  • forensic anthropology
  • scapulae
  • Sexual dimorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Sex estimation from reconstructed scapula models using discriminant function analysis in the Malaysian population. / Omar, Normaliza; Mohd Ali, Siti Hanum; Shafie, Mohamed Swarhib; Nik Ismail, Nik Azuan; Hadi, Helmi; Ismail, Rosnah; Mohd. Nor, Faridah.

In: Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Omar, Normaliza ; Mohd Ali, Siti Hanum ; Shafie, Mohamed Swarhib ; Nik Ismail, Nik Azuan ; Hadi, Helmi ; Ismail, Rosnah ; Mohd. Nor, Faridah. / Sex estimation from reconstructed scapula models using discriminant function analysis in the Malaysian population. In: Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2019.
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