Self-reported sleep quality using the malay version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-M) in Malaysian adults

Nor M.F. Farah, Teh Saw Yee, Hanif Farhan Mohd Rasdi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

(1) Background: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a useful tool for the assessment of subjective sleep quality in non-clinical and clinical settings. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in a general Malaysian adult population using a validated Malay version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-M); (2) Methods: The original PSQI was translated into Malay following forward and backward translation guidelines. The final Malay version was administered to a sample of healthy working adults (n = 106; mean age: 35.3 ± 7.6 years) without history of sleep disorders. Reliability and agreement were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and Bland–Altman plot. Convergent validity of PSQI-M was examined with the Malay version of Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS-M) using Pearson’s correlation coefficient; (3) Results: Overall mean PSQI global score was 5.25 ± 1.85. About 45% of the sample had PSQI global score >5, indicating poor sleep quality. Total sleep duration per night was 5.95 ± 1.05 h, below the recommended amount. Sleep quality seems to be affected by age but not gender. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach’s alpha in the whole sample was 0.74, with test–retest reliability (ICC) of 0.58 and SEM of 1.34. The PSQI test–retest scores indicated that most of the respondents (90%) lay within the 95% limits of agreement. The PSQI-M also showed significant correlation with ESS-M scores (r = 0.37, p < 0.01); (4) Conclusion: The PSQI-M showed acceptable reliability and is valid to be used in a general Malaysian adult population. Findings also indicate that a majority of the adults in our sample were experiencing inadequate sleep, thus further research is needed to identify the factors associated with poor sleep quality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4750
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Volume16
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

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Keywords

  • Psychometric properties
  • Reliability
  • Translation
  • Validation
  • Working adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Self-reported sleep quality using the malay version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-M) in Malaysian adults. / Farah, Nor M.F.; Yee, Teh Saw; Rasdi, Hanif Farhan Mohd.

In: International journal of environmental research and public health, Vol. 16, No. 23, 4750, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "(1) Background: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a useful tool for the assessment of subjective sleep quality in non-clinical and clinical settings. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in a general Malaysian adult population using a validated Malay version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-M); (2) Methods: The original PSQI was translated into Malay following forward and backward translation guidelines. The final Malay version was administered to a sample of healthy working adults (n = 106; mean age: 35.3 ± 7.6 years) without history of sleep disorders. Reliability and agreement were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and Bland–Altman plot. Convergent validity of PSQI-M was examined with the Malay version of Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS-M) using Pearson’s correlation coefficient; (3) Results: Overall mean PSQI global score was 5.25 ± 1.85. About 45{\%} of the sample had PSQI global score >5, indicating poor sleep quality. Total sleep duration per night was 5.95 ± 1.05 h, below the recommended amount. Sleep quality seems to be affected by age but not gender. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach’s alpha in the whole sample was 0.74, with test–retest reliability (ICC) of 0.58 and SEM of 1.34. The PSQI test–retest scores indicated that most of the respondents (90{\%}) lay within the 95{\%} limits of agreement. The PSQI-M also showed significant correlation with ESS-M scores (r = 0.37, p < 0.01); (4) Conclusion: The PSQI-M showed acceptable reliability and is valid to be used in a general Malaysian adult population. Findings also indicate that a majority of the adults in our sample were experiencing inadequate sleep, thus further research is needed to identify the factors associated with poor sleep quality.",
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AB - (1) Background: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a useful tool for the assessment of subjective sleep quality in non-clinical and clinical settings. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in a general Malaysian adult population using a validated Malay version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-M); (2) Methods: The original PSQI was translated into Malay following forward and backward translation guidelines. The final Malay version was administered to a sample of healthy working adults (n = 106; mean age: 35.3 ± 7.6 years) without history of sleep disorders. Reliability and agreement were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and Bland–Altman plot. Convergent validity of PSQI-M was examined with the Malay version of Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS-M) using Pearson’s correlation coefficient; (3) Results: Overall mean PSQI global score was 5.25 ± 1.85. About 45% of the sample had PSQI global score >5, indicating poor sleep quality. Total sleep duration per night was 5.95 ± 1.05 h, below the recommended amount. Sleep quality seems to be affected by age but not gender. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach’s alpha in the whole sample was 0.74, with test–retest reliability (ICC) of 0.58 and SEM of 1.34. The PSQI test–retest scores indicated that most of the respondents (90%) lay within the 95% limits of agreement. The PSQI-M also showed significant correlation with ESS-M scores (r = 0.37, p < 0.01); (4) Conclusion: The PSQI-M showed acceptable reliability and is valid to be used in a general Malaysian adult population. Findings also indicate that a majority of the adults in our sample were experiencing inadequate sleep, thus further research is needed to identify the factors associated with poor sleep quality.

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