Scientific studies of candi pengkalan bujang (site 19) ancient bricks: Knowledge of old kedah community's in usage of local raw materials

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material in addition to the usage of pillar bases made from granite stones and roof that are believed to have been made from wood and palm leafs. Relative dating proposed that this site was built between the 12th and 13 century AD. The architecture of the temple also indicates there was evolution toward the use of bricks that were smaller and of the same size as well as temple construction that revealed the lotus (padma) and upaphita structures. This study focuses on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to produce this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce these bricks utilized local raw materials. Two analysis techniques were used, namely the X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings of this study show that the major minerals found in the ancient bricks of the Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist are leucite, mullite and geothite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing these bricks. The major and trace element content also indicates that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the Knowledge Transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley which had already started since the 412th century.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2859-2864
Number of pages6
JournalResearch Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
Volume6
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Brick
Raw materials
Minerals
Trace elements
Mullite
Granite
Roofs
Quartz
Wood
Fluorescence
X ray diffraction
X rays

Keywords

  • Brick
  • Bujang valley
  • Candi pengkalan bujang (site 19)
  • x-ray diffraction
  • X-ray fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

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title = "Scientific studies of candi pengkalan bujang (site 19) ancient bricks: Knowledge of old kedah community's in usage of local raw materials",
abstract = "The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material in addition to the usage of pillar bases made from granite stones and roof that are believed to have been made from wood and palm leafs. Relative dating proposed that this site was built between the 12th and 13 century AD. The architecture of the temple also indicates there was evolution toward the use of bricks that were smaller and of the same size as well as temple construction that revealed the lotus (padma) and upaphita structures. This study focuses on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to produce this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce these bricks utilized local raw materials. Two analysis techniques were used, namely the X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings of this study show that the major minerals found in the ancient bricks of the Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist are leucite, mullite and geothite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing these bricks. The major and trace element content also indicates that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the Knowledge Transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley which had already started since the 412th century.",
keywords = "Brick, Bujang valley, Candi pengkalan bujang (site 19), x-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence",
author = "Zuliskandar Ramli and Shuhaimi, {Nik Hassan} and Rahman, {Nik Abdul} and Samian, {Abdul Latif} and Razman, {Muhammad Rizal} and {Syed Zakaria}, {Sharifah Zarina} and {Mohd Yusof}, {Ahmad Rizal}",
year = "2013",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "2859--2864",
journal = "Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology",
issn = "2040-7459",
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T1 - Scientific studies of candi pengkalan bujang (site 19) ancient bricks

T2 - Knowledge of old kedah community's in usage of local raw materials

AU - Ramli, Zuliskandar

AU - Shuhaimi, Nik Hassan

AU - Rahman, Nik Abdul

AU - Samian, Abdul Latif

AU - Razman, Muhammad Rizal

AU - Syed Zakaria, Sharifah Zarina

AU - Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Rizal

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material in addition to the usage of pillar bases made from granite stones and roof that are believed to have been made from wood and palm leafs. Relative dating proposed that this site was built between the 12th and 13 century AD. The architecture of the temple also indicates there was evolution toward the use of bricks that were smaller and of the same size as well as temple construction that revealed the lotus (padma) and upaphita structures. This study focuses on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to produce this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce these bricks utilized local raw materials. Two analysis techniques were used, namely the X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings of this study show that the major minerals found in the ancient bricks of the Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist are leucite, mullite and geothite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing these bricks. The major and trace element content also indicates that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the Knowledge Transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley which had already started since the 412th century.

AB - The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material in addition to the usage of pillar bases made from granite stones and roof that are believed to have been made from wood and palm leafs. Relative dating proposed that this site was built between the 12th and 13 century AD. The architecture of the temple also indicates there was evolution toward the use of bricks that were smaller and of the same size as well as temple construction that revealed the lotus (padma) and upaphita structures. This study focuses on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to produce this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce these bricks utilized local raw materials. Two analysis techniques were used, namely the X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings of this study show that the major minerals found in the ancient bricks of the Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19) are quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist are leucite, mullite and geothite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing these bricks. The major and trace element content also indicates that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the Knowledge Transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley which had already started since the 412th century.

KW - Brick

KW - Bujang valley

KW - Candi pengkalan bujang (site 19)

KW - x-ray diffraction

KW - X-ray fluorescence

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