Scientific analysis of ancient bricks at Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23): A comparative study

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Suhaini Md. Noor, Mohd Ambar Yanno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) are two temples in the Bujang valley, Kedah that used bricks as their main construction material. Based on relative dating, Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) was built in the 7 or 8th century AD while the Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) was built in the 11 or 12th centuIy AD. Site 17 is a temple with elements of Buddha based on the stupa structure while Site 23 is a temple with elements of Hindu based on the vimana and mandapa structures. Differences can also be seen in the size of the bricks used to build the structures of the two momnnents. Based on the architectural features, it is believed that the two momnnents were built by the local Community of old Kedah. Therefore, this scientific study was conducted to scientifically prove the source of the raw materials used and to make comparisons between the two sites. This is based on the hypothesis made that the local commllllity was involved in brick making by using local raw materials. It thus rejects the opinion of Quaritch-Wales based on the Colonisation Theory and supports the Indian Culture Indigenisation Theory by Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman. The material composition analysis involved two analysis techniques namely the X-ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The results of the analysis show that the mineral content of the bricks in Site 17 consists of quartz, muscovite, microline and kaolinite while the bricks of Site 23 contain minerals such as quartz, muscovite, anorthite, orthoclase, kaolinite and minor minerals such as hydrobiotite dan biotite. Clearly there were differences in the mineral content between the two sites but the bwning technique used was the same namely the open bwning technique. The content of the major and trace elements in the brick samples of Site 17 and 23 is also different if comparison is made. Nevertheless, both the sites used local raw materials to produce the bricks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-478
Number of pages6
JournalResearch Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume6
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

bricks
Brick
Minerals
minerals
Kaolin
Raw materials
Quartz
muscovite
kaolinite
Kaolinite
Trace Elements
Trace elements
trace elements
quartz
Wales
biotite
dating
valleys
x rays
Fluorescence

Keywords

  • Bujang valley
  • Bukit pendiat
  • Malaysia
  • Pengkalan bujang
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Scientific analysis of ancient bricks at Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) : A comparative study. / Ramli, Zuliskandar; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi; Samian, Abdul Latif; Md. Noor, Suhaini; Yanno, Mohd Ambar.

In: Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 7, 2011, p. 473-478.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{daec295cc8e940ce9a1988ecf36ec1e3,
title = "Scientific analysis of ancient bricks at Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23): A comparative study",
abstract = "Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) are two temples in the Bujang valley, Kedah that used bricks as their main construction material. Based on relative dating, Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) was built in the 7 or 8th century AD while the Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) was built in the 11 or 12th centuIy AD. Site 17 is a temple with elements of Buddha based on the stupa structure while Site 23 is a temple with elements of Hindu based on the vimana and mandapa structures. Differences can also be seen in the size of the bricks used to build the structures of the two momnnents. Based on the architectural features, it is believed that the two momnnents were built by the local Community of old Kedah. Therefore, this scientific study was conducted to scientifically prove the source of the raw materials used and to make comparisons between the two sites. This is based on the hypothesis made that the local commllllity was involved in brick making by using local raw materials. It thus rejects the opinion of Quaritch-Wales based on the Colonisation Theory and supports the Indian Culture Indigenisation Theory by Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman. The material composition analysis involved two analysis techniques namely the X-ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The results of the analysis show that the mineral content of the bricks in Site 17 consists of quartz, muscovite, microline and kaolinite while the bricks of Site 23 contain minerals such as quartz, muscovite, anorthite, orthoclase, kaolinite and minor minerals such as hydrobiotite dan biotite. Clearly there were differences in the mineral content between the two sites but the bwning technique used was the same namely the open bwning technique. The content of the major and trace elements in the brick samples of Site 17 and 23 is also different if comparison is made. Nevertheless, both the sites used local raw materials to produce the bricks.",
keywords = "Bujang valley, Bukit pendiat, Malaysia, Pengkalan bujang, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence",
author = "Zuliskandar Ramli and {Nik Abd Rahman}, {Nik Hassan Shuhaimi} and Samian, {Abdul Latif} and {Md. Noor}, Suhaini and Yanno, {Mohd Ambar}",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.3923/rjasci.2011.473.478",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "473--478",
journal = "Research Journal of Applied Sciences",
issn = "1815-932X",
publisher = "Medwell Publishing",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Scientific analysis of ancient bricks at Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23)

T2 - A comparative study

AU - Ramli, Zuliskandar

AU - Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi

AU - Samian, Abdul Latif

AU - Md. Noor, Suhaini

AU - Yanno, Mohd Ambar

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) are two temples in the Bujang valley, Kedah that used bricks as their main construction material. Based on relative dating, Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) was built in the 7 or 8th century AD while the Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) was built in the 11 or 12th centuIy AD. Site 17 is a temple with elements of Buddha based on the stupa structure while Site 23 is a temple with elements of Hindu based on the vimana and mandapa structures. Differences can also be seen in the size of the bricks used to build the structures of the two momnnents. Based on the architectural features, it is believed that the two momnnents were built by the local Community of old Kedah. Therefore, this scientific study was conducted to scientifically prove the source of the raw materials used and to make comparisons between the two sites. This is based on the hypothesis made that the local commllllity was involved in brick making by using local raw materials. It thus rejects the opinion of Quaritch-Wales based on the Colonisation Theory and supports the Indian Culture Indigenisation Theory by Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman. The material composition analysis involved two analysis techniques namely the X-ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The results of the analysis show that the mineral content of the bricks in Site 17 consists of quartz, muscovite, microline and kaolinite while the bricks of Site 23 contain minerals such as quartz, muscovite, anorthite, orthoclase, kaolinite and minor minerals such as hydrobiotite dan biotite. Clearly there were differences in the mineral content between the two sites but the bwning technique used was the same namely the open bwning technique. The content of the major and trace elements in the brick samples of Site 17 and 23 is also different if comparison is made. Nevertheless, both the sites used local raw materials to produce the bricks.

AB - Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) and Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) are two temples in the Bujang valley, Kedah that used bricks as their main construction material. Based on relative dating, Bukit Pendiat temple (Site 17) was built in the 7 or 8th century AD while the Pengkalan Bujang temple (Site 23) was built in the 11 or 12th centuIy AD. Site 17 is a temple with elements of Buddha based on the stupa structure while Site 23 is a temple with elements of Hindu based on the vimana and mandapa structures. Differences can also be seen in the size of the bricks used to build the structures of the two momnnents. Based on the architectural features, it is believed that the two momnnents were built by the local Community of old Kedah. Therefore, this scientific study was conducted to scientifically prove the source of the raw materials used and to make comparisons between the two sites. This is based on the hypothesis made that the local commllllity was involved in brick making by using local raw materials. It thus rejects the opinion of Quaritch-Wales based on the Colonisation Theory and supports the Indian Culture Indigenisation Theory by Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman. The material composition analysis involved two analysis techniques namely the X-ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The results of the analysis show that the mineral content of the bricks in Site 17 consists of quartz, muscovite, microline and kaolinite while the bricks of Site 23 contain minerals such as quartz, muscovite, anorthite, orthoclase, kaolinite and minor minerals such as hydrobiotite dan biotite. Clearly there were differences in the mineral content between the two sites but the bwning technique used was the same namely the open bwning technique. The content of the major and trace elements in the brick samples of Site 17 and 23 is also different if comparison is made. Nevertheless, both the sites used local raw materials to produce the bricks.

KW - Bujang valley

KW - Bukit pendiat

KW - Malaysia

KW - Pengkalan bujang

KW - X-ray diffraction

KW - X-ray fluorescence

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84859398599&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84859398599&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3923/rjasci.2011.473.478

DO - 10.3923/rjasci.2011.473.478

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84859398599

VL - 6

SP - 473

EP - 478

JO - Research Journal of Applied Sciences

JF - Research Journal of Applied Sciences

SN - 1815-932X

IS - 7

ER -