Salinity mapping of coastal groundwater aquifers using hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods

A case study from north Kelantan, Malaysia

Abdul Rahim Samsudin, A. Haryono, Umar Hamzah, A. G. Rafek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Integrated hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods were used to study the salinity of groundwater aquifers along the coastal area of north Kelantan. For the hydrogeochemical investigation, analysis of major ion contents of the groundwater was conducted, and other chemical parameters such as pH and total dissolved solids were also determined. For the geophysical study, both geoelectrical resistivity soundings and reflection seismic surveys were conducted to determine the characteristics of the subsurface and groundwater contained within the aquifers. The pH values range from 6.2 to 6.8, indicating that the groundwater in the study area is slightly acidic. Low content of chloride suggests that the groundwater in the first aquifer is fresh, with an average concentration of about 15.8 mg/l and high geoelectrical resistivity (>45 ohm m). On the other hand, the groundwater in the second aquifer is brackish, with chloride concentration ranging from 500 mg/l to 3,600 mg/l and very low geoelectrical resistivity (<45 ohm m) as well as high concentration of total dissolved solids (>1,000 mg/l). The groundwater in the third aquifer is fresh, with chloride concentrations generally ranging from 2 mg/l to 210 mg/l and geoelectrical resistivity of greater than 45 ohm m. Fresh and saltwater interface in the first aquifer is generally located directly in the area of the coast, but, for the second aquifer, both hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity results indicate that the fresh water and saltwater interface is located as far as 6 km from the beach. The considerable chloride ion content initially suggests that the salinity of the groundwater in the second aquifer is probably caused by the intrusion of seawater. However, continuous monitoring of the chloride content of the second aquifer indicated no significant changes with time, from which it can be inferred that the salinity of the groundwater is not affected by seasonal seawater intrusion. Schoeller diagrams illustrate that sulphate concentrations of the groundwater of the second aquifer are relatively low compared to those of the recent seawater. Therefore, this result suggests that the brackish water in the second aquifer is probably from ancient seawater that was trapped within the sediments for a long period of time, rather than due to direct seawater intrusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1737-1743
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Geology
Volume55
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008

Fingerprint

geophysical method
Aquifers
Malaysia
aquifers
Groundwater
groundwater
aquifer
salinity
case studies
Chlorides
electrical resistivity
chlorides
saltwater intrusion
chloride
seawater
Seawater
Salt water intrusion
methodology
saline water
Ions

Keywords

  • Geophysical survey
  • Groundwater
  • Hydrogeochemical analysis
  • Salinity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science

Cite this

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title = "Salinity mapping of coastal groundwater aquifers using hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods: A case study from north Kelantan, Malaysia",
abstract = "Integrated hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods were used to study the salinity of groundwater aquifers along the coastal area of north Kelantan. For the hydrogeochemical investigation, analysis of major ion contents of the groundwater was conducted, and other chemical parameters such as pH and total dissolved solids were also determined. For the geophysical study, both geoelectrical resistivity soundings and reflection seismic surveys were conducted to determine the characteristics of the subsurface and groundwater contained within the aquifers. The pH values range from 6.2 to 6.8, indicating that the groundwater in the study area is slightly acidic. Low content of chloride suggests that the groundwater in the first aquifer is fresh, with an average concentration of about 15.8 mg/l and high geoelectrical resistivity (>45 ohm m). On the other hand, the groundwater in the second aquifer is brackish, with chloride concentration ranging from 500 mg/l to 3,600 mg/l and very low geoelectrical resistivity (<45 ohm m) as well as high concentration of total dissolved solids (>1,000 mg/l). The groundwater in the third aquifer is fresh, with chloride concentrations generally ranging from 2 mg/l to 210 mg/l and geoelectrical resistivity of greater than 45 ohm m. Fresh and saltwater interface in the first aquifer is generally located directly in the area of the coast, but, for the second aquifer, both hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity results indicate that the fresh water and saltwater interface is located as far as 6 km from the beach. The considerable chloride ion content initially suggests that the salinity of the groundwater in the second aquifer is probably caused by the intrusion of seawater. However, continuous monitoring of the chloride content of the second aquifer indicated no significant changes with time, from which it can be inferred that the salinity of the groundwater is not affected by seasonal seawater intrusion. Schoeller diagrams illustrate that sulphate concentrations of the groundwater of the second aquifer are relatively low compared to those of the recent seawater. Therefore, this result suggests that the brackish water in the second aquifer is probably from ancient seawater that was trapped within the sediments for a long period of time, rather than due to direct seawater intrusion.",
keywords = "Geophysical survey, Groundwater, Hydrogeochemical analysis, Salinity",
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T1 - Salinity mapping of coastal groundwater aquifers using hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods

T2 - A case study from north Kelantan, Malaysia

AU - Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

AU - Haryono, A.

AU - Hamzah, Umar

AU - Rafek, A. G.

PY - 2008/10

Y1 - 2008/10

N2 - Integrated hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods were used to study the salinity of groundwater aquifers along the coastal area of north Kelantan. For the hydrogeochemical investigation, analysis of major ion contents of the groundwater was conducted, and other chemical parameters such as pH and total dissolved solids were also determined. For the geophysical study, both geoelectrical resistivity soundings and reflection seismic surveys were conducted to determine the characteristics of the subsurface and groundwater contained within the aquifers. The pH values range from 6.2 to 6.8, indicating that the groundwater in the study area is slightly acidic. Low content of chloride suggests that the groundwater in the first aquifer is fresh, with an average concentration of about 15.8 mg/l and high geoelectrical resistivity (>45 ohm m). On the other hand, the groundwater in the second aquifer is brackish, with chloride concentration ranging from 500 mg/l to 3,600 mg/l and very low geoelectrical resistivity (<45 ohm m) as well as high concentration of total dissolved solids (>1,000 mg/l). The groundwater in the third aquifer is fresh, with chloride concentrations generally ranging from 2 mg/l to 210 mg/l and geoelectrical resistivity of greater than 45 ohm m. Fresh and saltwater interface in the first aquifer is generally located directly in the area of the coast, but, for the second aquifer, both hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity results indicate that the fresh water and saltwater interface is located as far as 6 km from the beach. The considerable chloride ion content initially suggests that the salinity of the groundwater in the second aquifer is probably caused by the intrusion of seawater. However, continuous monitoring of the chloride content of the second aquifer indicated no significant changes with time, from which it can be inferred that the salinity of the groundwater is not affected by seasonal seawater intrusion. Schoeller diagrams illustrate that sulphate concentrations of the groundwater of the second aquifer are relatively low compared to those of the recent seawater. Therefore, this result suggests that the brackish water in the second aquifer is probably from ancient seawater that was trapped within the sediments for a long period of time, rather than due to direct seawater intrusion.

AB - Integrated hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods were used to study the salinity of groundwater aquifers along the coastal area of north Kelantan. For the hydrogeochemical investigation, analysis of major ion contents of the groundwater was conducted, and other chemical parameters such as pH and total dissolved solids were also determined. For the geophysical study, both geoelectrical resistivity soundings and reflection seismic surveys were conducted to determine the characteristics of the subsurface and groundwater contained within the aquifers. The pH values range from 6.2 to 6.8, indicating that the groundwater in the study area is slightly acidic. Low content of chloride suggests that the groundwater in the first aquifer is fresh, with an average concentration of about 15.8 mg/l and high geoelectrical resistivity (>45 ohm m). On the other hand, the groundwater in the second aquifer is brackish, with chloride concentration ranging from 500 mg/l to 3,600 mg/l and very low geoelectrical resistivity (<45 ohm m) as well as high concentration of total dissolved solids (>1,000 mg/l). The groundwater in the third aquifer is fresh, with chloride concentrations generally ranging from 2 mg/l to 210 mg/l and geoelectrical resistivity of greater than 45 ohm m. Fresh and saltwater interface in the first aquifer is generally located directly in the area of the coast, but, for the second aquifer, both hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity results indicate that the fresh water and saltwater interface is located as far as 6 km from the beach. The considerable chloride ion content initially suggests that the salinity of the groundwater in the second aquifer is probably caused by the intrusion of seawater. However, continuous monitoring of the chloride content of the second aquifer indicated no significant changes with time, from which it can be inferred that the salinity of the groundwater is not affected by seasonal seawater intrusion. Schoeller diagrams illustrate that sulphate concentrations of the groundwater of the second aquifer are relatively low compared to those of the recent seawater. Therefore, this result suggests that the brackish water in the second aquifer is probably from ancient seawater that was trapped within the sediments for a long period of time, rather than due to direct seawater intrusion.

KW - Geophysical survey

KW - Groundwater

KW - Hydrogeochemical analysis

KW - Salinity

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