Risk factors for prostate cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

A case-control study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Methods: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (ORM) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0. Results: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89 39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96). Conclusion: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1015-1020
Number of pages6
JournalAsian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Volume10
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Case-Control Studies
Prostatic Neoplasms
Life Style
Multivariate Analysis
Coitus
Occupational Health
Occupational Exposure
Lycopersicon esculentum
Occupations
Pesticides
Vegetables
Meat
Health Status
Neoplasms
Software
Public Health
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Diet

Keywords

  • Case-control study
  • Malaysia
  • Prostate cancer
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Epidemiology

Cite this

@article{af1d49f402414c6685fc3743c4600aea,
title = "Risk factors for prostate cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre: A case-control study",
abstract = "Introduction: In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Methods: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (ORM) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0. Results: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8{\%}) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0{\%}) followed by Malay (46.4{\%}) and Indian (3.6{\%}). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95{\%} CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95{\%} CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95{\%} CI= 3.89 39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95{\%} CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95{\%} CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95{\%} CI= 0.19-0.96). Conclusion: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.",
keywords = "Case-control study, Malaysia, Prostate cancer, Risk factors",
author = "Subahir, {Mohd Nizam} and Shah, {Shamsul Azhar} and {Md. Zainuddin}, Zulkifli",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "1015--1020",
journal = "Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention",
issn = "1513-7368",
publisher = "Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention",
number = "6",

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T1 - Risk factors for prostate cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

T2 - A case-control study

AU - Subahir, Mohd Nizam

AU - Shah, Shamsul Azhar

AU - Md. Zainuddin, Zulkifli

PY - 2009

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N2 - Introduction: In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Methods: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (ORM) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0. Results: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89 39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96). Conclusion: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.

AB - Introduction: In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Methods: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (ORM) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0. Results: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89 39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96). Conclusion: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.

KW - Case-control study

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KW - Prostate cancer

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