Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia

Noriklil Bukhary Ismail Bukhary, Zaleha Md Isa, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Khor Geok Lin, Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy, Haslinda Hassan, Noor Sharifatul Hana Yeop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Pregnant women form one of the high risk groups facing hypovitaminosis D. Low level of vitamin D will affect directly or indirectly both mother and fetus. Screening vitamin D in the first trimester of pregnancy is important to determine the necessary preventive action. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its risk factors among pregnant women in the first trimester. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among first trimester pregnant women during their first antenatal visit. Samples were taken from different ethnicities in an urban district in Malaysia. A total of 396 respondents (99 % response rate) aged 18-40 years completed self-administered and guided questionnaire (characteristics and risk factors), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for vitamin D in Malaysia (FFQ vitamin D/My), anthropometric measures (weight and height), blood test for serum 25(OH)D, skin measurement using Mexameter (MX 18) and Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM). Data were analyzed to determine the association between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D. Results: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) was 90.4 % (358). The mean age of respondents was 28.06 ± 4.09 years old. The independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D were Malay ethnicity (OR 33.68; 95 % CI: 12.81, 88.56), Indian ethnicity (OR 16.86; 95 % CI: 3.78,75.20), secondary education (OR 12.12; 95 % CI: 2.71, 54.16) and tertiary education (OR 14.38; 95 % Cl: 3.31, 62.45). Conclusion: Awareness should be raised among Malay and Indian pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education who consumed vitamin D (especially milk) poorly in order to prevent adverse health outcomes. Further studies need to be conducted among health care workers to determine their level of knowledge related to vitamin D, as they are front liner in detecting the hypovitaminosis D.

Original languageEnglish
Article number156
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2016

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Vitamin D
Pregnant Women
First Pregnancy Trimester
Education
Skin
Hematologic Tests
Serum
Milk
Fetus
Cross-Sectional Studies
Mothers
Delivery of Health Care
Weights and Measures
Food
Surveys and Questionnaires
Health

Keywords

  • Ethnic
  • Hypovitaminosis D
  • Malaysia
  • Pregnant women
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors
  • Skin type

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Cite this

Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia. / Bukhary, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail; Md Isa, Zaleha; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Lin, Khor Geok; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha; Hassan, Haslinda; Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana.

In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Vol. 16, No. 1, 156, 13.07.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bukhary, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail ; Md Isa, Zaleha ; Shamsuddin, Khadijah ; Lin, Khor Geok ; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha ; Hassan, Haslinda ; Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana. / Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia. In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Pregnant women form one of the high risk groups facing hypovitaminosis D. Low level of vitamin D will affect directly or indirectly both mother and fetus. Screening vitamin D in the first trimester of pregnancy is important to determine the necessary preventive action. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its risk factors among pregnant women in the first trimester. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among first trimester pregnant women during their first antenatal visit. Samples were taken from different ethnicities in an urban district in Malaysia. A total of 396 respondents (99 {\%} response rate) aged 18-40 years completed self-administered and guided questionnaire (characteristics and risk factors), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for vitamin D in Malaysia (FFQ vitamin D/My), anthropometric measures (weight and height), blood test for serum 25(OH)D, skin measurement using Mexameter (MX 18) and Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM). Data were analyzed to determine the association between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D. Results: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) was 90.4 {\%} (358). The mean age of respondents was 28.06 ± 4.09 years old. The independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D were Malay ethnicity (OR 33.68; 95 {\%} CI: 12.81, 88.56), Indian ethnicity (OR 16.86; 95 {\%} CI: 3.78,75.20), secondary education (OR 12.12; 95 {\%} CI: 2.71, 54.16) and tertiary education (OR 14.38; 95 {\%} Cl: 3.31, 62.45). Conclusion: Awareness should be raised among Malay and Indian pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education who consumed vitamin D (especially milk) poorly in order to prevent adverse health outcomes. Further studies need to be conducted among health care workers to determine their level of knowledge related to vitamin D, as they are front liner in detecting the hypovitaminosis D.",
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author = "Bukhary, {Noriklil Bukhary Ismail} and {Md Isa}, Zaleha and Khadijah Shamsuddin and Lin, {Khor Geok} and {Abdullah Mahdy}, Zaleha and Haslinda Hassan and Yeop, {Noor Sharifatul Hana}",
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AU - Md Isa, Zaleha

AU - Shamsuddin, Khadijah

AU - Lin, Khor Geok

AU - Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

AU - Hassan, Haslinda

AU - Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana

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N2 - Background: Pregnant women form one of the high risk groups facing hypovitaminosis D. Low level of vitamin D will affect directly or indirectly both mother and fetus. Screening vitamin D in the first trimester of pregnancy is important to determine the necessary preventive action. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its risk factors among pregnant women in the first trimester. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among first trimester pregnant women during their first antenatal visit. Samples were taken from different ethnicities in an urban district in Malaysia. A total of 396 respondents (99 % response rate) aged 18-40 years completed self-administered and guided questionnaire (characteristics and risk factors), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for vitamin D in Malaysia (FFQ vitamin D/My), anthropometric measures (weight and height), blood test for serum 25(OH)D, skin measurement using Mexameter (MX 18) and Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM). Data were analyzed to determine the association between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D. Results: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) was 90.4 % (358). The mean age of respondents was 28.06 ± 4.09 years old. The independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D were Malay ethnicity (OR 33.68; 95 % CI: 12.81, 88.56), Indian ethnicity (OR 16.86; 95 % CI: 3.78,75.20), secondary education (OR 12.12; 95 % CI: 2.71, 54.16) and tertiary education (OR 14.38; 95 % Cl: 3.31, 62.45). Conclusion: Awareness should be raised among Malay and Indian pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education who consumed vitamin D (especially milk) poorly in order to prevent adverse health outcomes. Further studies need to be conducted among health care workers to determine their level of knowledge related to vitamin D, as they are front liner in detecting the hypovitaminosis D.

AB - Background: Pregnant women form one of the high risk groups facing hypovitaminosis D. Low level of vitamin D will affect directly or indirectly both mother and fetus. Screening vitamin D in the first trimester of pregnancy is important to determine the necessary preventive action. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its risk factors among pregnant women in the first trimester. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among first trimester pregnant women during their first antenatal visit. Samples were taken from different ethnicities in an urban district in Malaysia. A total of 396 respondents (99 % response rate) aged 18-40 years completed self-administered and guided questionnaire (characteristics and risk factors), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for vitamin D in Malaysia (FFQ vitamin D/My), anthropometric measures (weight and height), blood test for serum 25(OH)D, skin measurement using Mexameter (MX 18) and Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM). Data were analyzed to determine the association between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D. Results: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) was 90.4 % (358). The mean age of respondents was 28.06 ± 4.09 years old. The independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D were Malay ethnicity (OR 33.68; 95 % CI: 12.81, 88.56), Indian ethnicity (OR 16.86; 95 % CI: 3.78,75.20), secondary education (OR 12.12; 95 % CI: 2.71, 54.16) and tertiary education (OR 14.38; 95 % Cl: 3.31, 62.45). Conclusion: Awareness should be raised among Malay and Indian pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education who consumed vitamin D (especially milk) poorly in order to prevent adverse health outcomes. Further studies need to be conducted among health care workers to determine their level of knowledge related to vitamin D, as they are front liner in detecting the hypovitaminosis D.

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KW - Malaysia

KW - Pregnant women

KW - Prevalence

KW - Risk factors

KW - Skin type

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