Rheumatoid arthritis

Recent advances on its etiology, role of cytokines and pharmacotherapy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An autoimmune disease is defined as a clinical syndrome resulted from an instigation of both T cell and B cell or individually, in the absence of any present infection or any sort of distinguishable cause. Clonal deletion of auto reactive cells remains the central canon of immunology for decades, keeping the role of T cell and B cell aside, which are actually the guards to recognize the entry of foreign body. According to NIH, 23.5 million Americans are all together affected by these diseases. They are rare, but with the exception of RA. Rheumatoid arthritis is chronic and systemic autoimmune response to the multiple joints with unknown ethology, progressive disability, systemic complications, early death and high socioeconomic costs. Its ancient disease with an old history found in North American tribes since 1500 BCE, but its etiology is yet to be explored. Current conventional and biological therapies used for RA are not fulfilling the need of the patients but give only partial responses. There is a lack of consistent and liable biomarkers of prognosis therapeutic response, and toxicity. Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by hyperplasic synovium, production of cytokines, chemokines, autoantibodies like rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), osteoclastogensis, angiogenesis and systemic consequences like cardiovascular, pulmonary, psychological, and skeletal disorders. Cytokines, a diverse group of polypeptides, play critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. Their involvement in autoimmune diseases is a rapidly growing area of biological and clinical research. Among the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1α/β and TNF-α trigger the intracellular molecular signalling pathway responsible for the pathogenesis of RA that leads to the activation of mesenchymal cell, recruitment of innate and adaptive immune system cells, activation of synoviocytes which in term activates various mediators including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), resulting in inflamed synovium, increase angiogenesis and decrease lymphangiogensis. Their current pharmacotherapy should focus on their three phases of progression i.e. prearthritis phase, transition phase and clinical phase. In this way we will be able to find a way to keep the balance between the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines that is believe to be the dogma of pathogenesis of RA. For this we need to explore new agents, whether from synthetic or natural source to find the answers for unresolved etiology of autoimmune diseases and to provide a quality of life to the patients suffering from these diseases specifically RA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-633
Number of pages19
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Volume92
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

Fingerprint

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cytokines
Autoimmune Diseases
Drug Therapy
Synovial Membrane
Interleukin-1
B-Lymphocytes
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Ethology
Clonal Deletion
T-Lymphocytes
Biological Therapy
Rheumatoid Factor
Phase Transition
Foreign Bodies
Allergy and Immunology
Autoimmunity
Interleukin-8
Population Groups
Chemokines

Keywords

  • Adaptive immunity
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis
  • Osteoclastogensis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Tissue necrosis factor-alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Rheumatoid arthritis : Recent advances on its etiology, role of cytokines and pharmacotherapy. / Alam, Javaid; Jantan, Ibrahim; Syed Nasir Abbas, Bukhari.

In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 92, 01.08.2017, p. 615-633.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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