Response surface optimization on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) leaves Peleg kinetic modelling extract

F. N.M. Fazil, N. S.M. Azzimi, Saiful Irwan Zubairi

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Abstract

Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) is interesting traditional medicine because of pharmacology characteristics that contain rich in phenolic content and antioxidant. The aim of study was to determine the optimum yield and exhaustive time extraction using Peleg's model. Qualitative and quantification test for detection of orientin and vitexin using method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on the results obtained, the optimum concentration for orientin (0.72 ± 0.002 mg/g) and vitexin (2.10 ± 0.13 mg/g) were observed at 18 h of extraction (texhaustive). The optimum extraction parameters for optimum recovery of phenolic content and antioxidant activities from the leaves of Clinachantus nutans were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities were evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate the effects of ultrasonic frequency (X1: 25 - 40 kHz), temperature (X2: 40 - 80°C) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X3: 10 - 30 ml/g) on the recovery of TPC (Y1) and antioxidant activities of DPPH (Y2) and FRAP (Y3). The optimal parameter achieved based on combination of extraction parameters: X1 = 25 kHz sonication capacity, X2 = 80°C temperature and X3 = 30 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio. These optimum conditions yielded TPC of (25.09 mg GAE/g), DPPH (66.85%), and FRAP (9.44 μmol TE/g). The optimum values of TPC and DPPH from this study are comparable with green tea (benchmark). Our results revealed that distilled water may be a good choice for extracting antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus mutans. Concentration of orientin and vitexin compounds were extracted during optimization exhibited lower than the finding from Peleg model. Prolonged extraction at high temperature during optimization may degrade flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds. However, the concentration of extracted compound (orientin and vitexin) from the optimum parameters had produced high in phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the application of Peleg model was able to determine the extraction exhaustive time at the maximum extract yield. In addition, this study proved that the application both models (RSM and Peleg) have been successfully be able to provide the optimum extraction parameters with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S105-S115
JournalInternational Food Research Journal
Volume25
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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Snakes
Malaysia
Borneo
Poaceae
Antioxidants
antioxidant activity
kinetics
extracts
leaves
antioxidants
response surface methodology
Temperature
Free Radicals
temperature
liquids
sulfonic acid
pharmacology
green tea
traditional medicine
Natrix natrix

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Clinachanthus nutans Peleg model
  • Orientin
  • Vitexin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

@article{9cb65af308e4402d91604eacb926a464,
title = "Response surface optimization on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) leaves Peleg kinetic modelling extract",
abstract = "Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) is interesting traditional medicine because of pharmacology characteristics that contain rich in phenolic content and antioxidant. The aim of study was to determine the optimum yield and exhaustive time extraction using Peleg's model. Qualitative and quantification test for detection of orientin and vitexin using method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on the results obtained, the optimum concentration for orientin (0.72 ± 0.002 mg/g) and vitexin (2.10 ± 0.13 mg/g) were observed at 18 h of extraction (texhaustive). The optimum extraction parameters for optimum recovery of phenolic content and antioxidant activities from the leaves of Clinachantus nutans were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities were evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate the effects of ultrasonic frequency (X1: 25 - 40 kHz), temperature (X2: 40 - 80°C) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X3: 10 - 30 ml/g) on the recovery of TPC (Y1) and antioxidant activities of DPPH (Y2) and FRAP (Y3). The optimal parameter achieved based on combination of extraction parameters: X1 = 25 kHz sonication capacity, X2 = 80°C temperature and X3 = 30 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio. These optimum conditions yielded TPC of (25.09 mg GAE/g), DPPH (66.85{\%}), and FRAP (9.44 μmol TE/g). The optimum values of TPC and DPPH from this study are comparable with green tea (benchmark). Our results revealed that distilled water may be a good choice for extracting antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus mutans. Concentration of orientin and vitexin compounds were extracted during optimization exhibited lower than the finding from Peleg model. Prolonged extraction at high temperature during optimization may degrade flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds. However, the concentration of extracted compound (orientin and vitexin) from the optimum parameters had produced high in phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the application of Peleg model was able to determine the extraction exhaustive time at the maximum extract yield. In addition, this study proved that the application both models (RSM and Peleg) have been successfully be able to provide the optimum extraction parameters with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.",
keywords = "Antioxidants, Clinachanthus nutans Peleg model, Orientin, Vitexin",
author = "Fazil, {F. N.M.} and Azzimi, {N. S.M.} and Zubairi, {Saiful Irwan}",
year = "2018",
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journal = "International Food Research Journal",
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T1 - Response surface optimization on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) leaves Peleg kinetic modelling extract

AU - Fazil, F. N.M.

AU - Azzimi, N. S.M.

AU - Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) is interesting traditional medicine because of pharmacology characteristics that contain rich in phenolic content and antioxidant. The aim of study was to determine the optimum yield and exhaustive time extraction using Peleg's model. Qualitative and quantification test for detection of orientin and vitexin using method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on the results obtained, the optimum concentration for orientin (0.72 ± 0.002 mg/g) and vitexin (2.10 ± 0.13 mg/g) were observed at 18 h of extraction (texhaustive). The optimum extraction parameters for optimum recovery of phenolic content and antioxidant activities from the leaves of Clinachantus nutans were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities were evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate the effects of ultrasonic frequency (X1: 25 - 40 kHz), temperature (X2: 40 - 80°C) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X3: 10 - 30 ml/g) on the recovery of TPC (Y1) and antioxidant activities of DPPH (Y2) and FRAP (Y3). The optimal parameter achieved based on combination of extraction parameters: X1 = 25 kHz sonication capacity, X2 = 80°C temperature and X3 = 30 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio. These optimum conditions yielded TPC of (25.09 mg GAE/g), DPPH (66.85%), and FRAP (9.44 μmol TE/g). The optimum values of TPC and DPPH from this study are comparable with green tea (benchmark). Our results revealed that distilled water may be a good choice for extracting antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus mutans. Concentration of orientin and vitexin compounds were extracted during optimization exhibited lower than the finding from Peleg model. Prolonged extraction at high temperature during optimization may degrade flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds. However, the concentration of extracted compound (orientin and vitexin) from the optimum parameters had produced high in phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the application of Peleg model was able to determine the extraction exhaustive time at the maximum extract yield. In addition, this study proved that the application both models (RSM and Peleg) have been successfully be able to provide the optimum extraction parameters with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.

AB - Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans) is interesting traditional medicine because of pharmacology characteristics that contain rich in phenolic content and antioxidant. The aim of study was to determine the optimum yield and exhaustive time extraction using Peleg's model. Qualitative and quantification test for detection of orientin and vitexin using method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on the results obtained, the optimum concentration for orientin (0.72 ± 0.002 mg/g) and vitexin (2.10 ± 0.13 mg/g) were observed at 18 h of extraction (texhaustive). The optimum extraction parameters for optimum recovery of phenolic content and antioxidant activities from the leaves of Clinachantus nutans were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities were evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate the effects of ultrasonic frequency (X1: 25 - 40 kHz), temperature (X2: 40 - 80°C) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X3: 10 - 30 ml/g) on the recovery of TPC (Y1) and antioxidant activities of DPPH (Y2) and FRAP (Y3). The optimal parameter achieved based on combination of extraction parameters: X1 = 25 kHz sonication capacity, X2 = 80°C temperature and X3 = 30 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio. These optimum conditions yielded TPC of (25.09 mg GAE/g), DPPH (66.85%), and FRAP (9.44 μmol TE/g). The optimum values of TPC and DPPH from this study are comparable with green tea (benchmark). Our results revealed that distilled water may be a good choice for extracting antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus mutans. Concentration of orientin and vitexin compounds were extracted during optimization exhibited lower than the finding from Peleg model. Prolonged extraction at high temperature during optimization may degrade flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds. However, the concentration of extracted compound (orientin and vitexin) from the optimum parameters had produced high in phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the application of Peleg model was able to determine the extraction exhaustive time at the maximum extract yield. In addition, this study proved that the application both models (RSM and Peleg) have been successfully be able to provide the optimum extraction parameters with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.

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