Removal of simvastatin from aqueous solution by electrochemical process using graphite-PVC as anode

A case study of evaluation the toxicity, kinetics and chlorinated by-products

Zainab H. Mussa, Fouad F. Al-Qaim, Mohamed Rozali Othman, Md. Pauzi Abdullah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As far as we know, the electrochemical degradation of simvastatin, a widely used as a cholesterol lowering drug, has not been reported yet. The oxidation process has been investigated in pure water and wastewater using graphite-Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) composite electrode as anode. Effects of initial concentration of simvastatin, NaCl loading, type of sample and applied voltage were tested to evaluate the electrochemical oxidation process. The results revealed that the electrochemical oxidation rates of simvastatin followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate constant values ranged from 0.006-0.23 min-1 depending on the operating parameters. Simvastatin was completely removed, after 40 min of treatment, at 4 g/L NaCl and 10 V indicating high concentration of OCl- produced in the solution but at the same time energy consumption (EC) was very high. However, 6 V was selected for further experiments (90% removal and 0.093 Wh/mg energy consumption) after 40 min. The low concentration of simvastatin (30 mg/L) exhibited better removal of 97% compared to 50 mg/L which gives removal 90% after 40 min. In this work the electrochemical oxidation process of simvastatin has been studied by monitoring the by-products and their toxicity using the time-of-flight (TOF/MS) technology. Chlorinated by-products were separated and identified accurately using isotope modern software. Simvastatin was transformed within 20-80 min, however, after 100 min most of by-products have been removed. Eleven new by-products of simvastatin were identified and monitored in both positive and negative ionization mode.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3338-3347
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016

Fingerprint

Vinyl Chloride
Simvastatin
Graphite
graphite
Byproducts
Toxicity
Electrochemical oxidation
Anodes
aqueous solution
chloride
toxicity
oxidation
kinetics
Kinetics
Energy utilization
Cholesterol
Ionization
Isotopes
Rate constants
electrode

Keywords

  • Chlorinated by-products
  • Electrochemical oxidation
  • Graphite-PVC anode
  • LC-TOF/MS
  • Simvastatin
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal

Cite this

@article{bd555eedd0fa44cf839f6024965bdae9,
title = "Removal of simvastatin from aqueous solution by electrochemical process using graphite-PVC as anode: A case study of evaluation the toxicity, kinetics and chlorinated by-products",
abstract = "As far as we know, the electrochemical degradation of simvastatin, a widely used as a cholesterol lowering drug, has not been reported yet. The oxidation process has been investigated in pure water and wastewater using graphite-Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) composite electrode as anode. Effects of initial concentration of simvastatin, NaCl loading, type of sample and applied voltage were tested to evaluate the electrochemical oxidation process. The results revealed that the electrochemical oxidation rates of simvastatin followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate constant values ranged from 0.006-0.23 min-1 depending on the operating parameters. Simvastatin was completely removed, after 40 min of treatment, at 4 g/L NaCl and 10 V indicating high concentration of OCl- produced in the solution but at the same time energy consumption (EC) was very high. However, 6 V was selected for further experiments (90{\%} removal and 0.093 Wh/mg energy consumption) after 40 min. The low concentration of simvastatin (30 mg/L) exhibited better removal of 97{\%} compared to 50 mg/L which gives removal 90{\%} after 40 min. In this work the electrochemical oxidation process of simvastatin has been studied by monitoring the by-products and their toxicity using the time-of-flight (TOF/MS) technology. Chlorinated by-products were separated and identified accurately using isotope modern software. Simvastatin was transformed within 20-80 min, however, after 100 min most of by-products have been removed. Eleven new by-products of simvastatin were identified and monitored in both positive and negative ionization mode.",
keywords = "Chlorinated by-products, Electrochemical oxidation, Graphite-PVC anode, LC-TOF/MS, Simvastatin, Toxicity",
author = "Mussa, {Zainab H.} and Al-Qaim, {Fouad F.} and Othman, {Mohamed Rozali} and Abdullah, {Md. Pauzi}",
year = "2016",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Removal of simvastatin from aqueous solution by electrochemical process using graphite-PVC as anode

T2 - A case study of evaluation the toxicity, kinetics and chlorinated by-products

AU - Mussa, Zainab H.

AU - Al-Qaim, Fouad F.

AU - Othman, Mohamed Rozali

AU - Abdullah, Md. Pauzi

PY - 2016/9/1

Y1 - 2016/9/1

N2 - As far as we know, the electrochemical degradation of simvastatin, a widely used as a cholesterol lowering drug, has not been reported yet. The oxidation process has been investigated in pure water and wastewater using graphite-Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) composite electrode as anode. Effects of initial concentration of simvastatin, NaCl loading, type of sample and applied voltage were tested to evaluate the electrochemical oxidation process. The results revealed that the electrochemical oxidation rates of simvastatin followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate constant values ranged from 0.006-0.23 min-1 depending on the operating parameters. Simvastatin was completely removed, after 40 min of treatment, at 4 g/L NaCl and 10 V indicating high concentration of OCl- produced in the solution but at the same time energy consumption (EC) was very high. However, 6 V was selected for further experiments (90% removal and 0.093 Wh/mg energy consumption) after 40 min. The low concentration of simvastatin (30 mg/L) exhibited better removal of 97% compared to 50 mg/L which gives removal 90% after 40 min. In this work the electrochemical oxidation process of simvastatin has been studied by monitoring the by-products and their toxicity using the time-of-flight (TOF/MS) technology. Chlorinated by-products were separated and identified accurately using isotope modern software. Simvastatin was transformed within 20-80 min, however, after 100 min most of by-products have been removed. Eleven new by-products of simvastatin were identified and monitored in both positive and negative ionization mode.

AB - As far as we know, the electrochemical degradation of simvastatin, a widely used as a cholesterol lowering drug, has not been reported yet. The oxidation process has been investigated in pure water and wastewater using graphite-Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) composite electrode as anode. Effects of initial concentration of simvastatin, NaCl loading, type of sample and applied voltage were tested to evaluate the electrochemical oxidation process. The results revealed that the electrochemical oxidation rates of simvastatin followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate constant values ranged from 0.006-0.23 min-1 depending on the operating parameters. Simvastatin was completely removed, after 40 min of treatment, at 4 g/L NaCl and 10 V indicating high concentration of OCl- produced in the solution but at the same time energy consumption (EC) was very high. However, 6 V was selected for further experiments (90% removal and 0.093 Wh/mg energy consumption) after 40 min. The low concentration of simvastatin (30 mg/L) exhibited better removal of 97% compared to 50 mg/L which gives removal 90% after 40 min. In this work the electrochemical oxidation process of simvastatin has been studied by monitoring the by-products and their toxicity using the time-of-flight (TOF/MS) technology. Chlorinated by-products were separated and identified accurately using isotope modern software. Simvastatin was transformed within 20-80 min, however, after 100 min most of by-products have been removed. Eleven new by-products of simvastatin were identified and monitored in both positive and negative ionization mode.

KW - Chlorinated by-products

KW - Electrochemical oxidation

KW - Graphite-PVC anode

KW - LC-TOF/MS

KW - Simvastatin

KW - Toxicity

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jece.2016.07.006

DO - 10.1016/j.jece.2016.07.006

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JO - Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering

JF - Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering

SN - 2213-3437

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