Reflow Optimization Process

Thermal Stress Using Numerical Analysis and Intermetallic Spallation in Backwards Compatibility Solder Joints

F. Che Ani, Azman Jalar @ Jalil, R. Ismail, Norinsan Kamil Othman, M. Z. Abdullah, M. S Abdul Aziz, C. Y. Khor, M. Abu Bakar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study applies the reflow optimization process to investigate the phenomenon of spalling in aerospace backward compatibility solder joints when utilized with a Ni substrate [electroless nickel immersion gold, printed circuit board surface finish, and ball grid array (BGA) pads]. The backward compatibility assembly comprised a lead-free tin–silver–copper (96.5Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/SAC 305 alloy) solder ball assembled with tin–lead paste. The soldering of the lead-free BGA was conducted using two reflow temperature profiles and two conveyor speeds under a nitrogen atmosphere in a full convection reflow oven. The optimized reflow profile has peak temperatures ranging from 237.06 to 237.09°C for 68.94–69.36 s. Scanning electron microscope reveals intermetallic compound formation with maximum thicknesses which are lower than 12 μm as per aerospace requirement. Intermetallic compound spalling of solder ball interface components was not observed. However, spalling between printed circuit board and solder bulk was noted. Nevertheless, at both reflow temperature profiles, the composition and phase distribution of the lead-free BGA ball and tin–lead solder paste were fairly uniform across all joints. This work also presents a finite element-based simulation of backward compatibility assembly in reflow process. A growing number of manufacturers are changing their components to lead-free types without notifying customers. If an aerospace production line is still running a tin–lead-based process, understanding how these lead-free components are processed with tin–lead solder becomes essential. This paper will serve as a reference for manufacturing engineers, particularly those involved in surface mount technology application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1669-1679
Number of pages11
JournalArabian Journal for Science and Engineering
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015

Fingerprint

Thermal stress
Soldering alloys
Intermetallics
Numerical analysis
Lead
Ball grid arrays
Spalling
Printed circuit boards
Adhesive pastes
Surface mount technology
Soldering
Ovens
Temperature
Electron microscopes
Gold
Nickel
Nitrogen
Scanning
Engineers
Substrates

Keywords

  • Backwards compatibility solder joints
  • Intermetallic spallation
  • Numerical analysis
  • Reflow optimization
  • Thermal stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Reflow Optimization Process : Thermal Stress Using Numerical Analysis and Intermetallic Spallation in Backwards Compatibility Solder Joints. / Ani, F. Che; Jalar @ Jalil, Azman; Ismail, R.; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Abdullah, M. Z.; Aziz, M. S Abdul; Khor, C. Y.; Bakar, M. Abu.

In: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 6, 01.06.2015, p. 1669-1679.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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