Radiological characterization of building materials used in Malaysia and assessment of external and internal doses

Shittu Abdullahi, Aznan Fazli Ismail, Supian Samat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study, the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 222 Rn, and 40 K, emanation fractions (P), equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC), and mass exhalation rates (E m ) of radon released from building materials used in Malaysia were studied using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detector. Radiological parameters [activity concentration index (ACI), indoor air-absorbed dose rate (D in ), annual effective dose (AED in ) from external and internal (E Rn ), soft tissues (H ST ) and lung (H L ), and effective dose equivalent (H eff )] were estimated to evaluate radiological hazards due to the use of these building materials: sand, cement, gravel, bricks, tiles, fly ash, white cement, and ceramic raw materials. The measured P, EEC, and E m vary from 10 to 30%, 0.9 to 22 Bq m −3 , and 33 to 674 mBq h −1  kg −1 , respectively, while the calculated ACI and AED in vary from 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.1 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.4 ± 0.6 mSv y −1 , respectively. On the other hand, the internal annual effective dose ranges from 0.1 to 1.4 mSv y −1 . The estimated radiological risk parameters were below the recommended maximum values, and radiological hazards associated with building materials under investigation are therefore negligible.

Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalNuclear Science and Techniques
Volume30
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Malaysia
dosage
Hazards
Cements
Gamma ray spectrometers
cements
Radon
hazards
Gravel
Ceramic materials
Tile
Brick
Fly ash
Raw materials
exhalation
Sand
gamma ray spectrometers
gravels
fly ash
Tissue

Keywords

  • Annual effective dose
  • Effective dose equivalent
  • Emanation fraction
  • Equilibrium equivalent concentration
  • Indoor radon
  • Mass exhalation rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Radiological characterization of building materials used in Malaysia and assessment of external and internal doses",
abstract = "In this study, the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 222 Rn, and 40 K, emanation fractions (P), equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC), and mass exhalation rates (E m ) of radon released from building materials used in Malaysia were studied using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detector. Radiological parameters [activity concentration index (ACI), indoor air-absorbed dose rate (D in ), annual effective dose (AED in ) from external and internal (E Rn ), soft tissues (H ST ) and lung (H L ), and effective dose equivalent (H eff )] were estimated to evaluate radiological hazards due to the use of these building materials: sand, cement, gravel, bricks, tiles, fly ash, white cement, and ceramic raw materials. The measured P, EEC, and E m vary from 10 to 30{\%}, 0.9 to 22 Bq m −3 , and 33 to 674 mBq h −1  kg −1 , respectively, while the calculated ACI and AED in vary from 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.1 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.4 ± 0.6 mSv y −1 , respectively. On the other hand, the internal annual effective dose ranges from 0.1 to 1.4 mSv y −1 . The estimated radiological risk parameters were below the recommended maximum values, and radiological hazards associated with building materials under investigation are therefore negligible.",
keywords = "Annual effective dose, Effective dose equivalent, Emanation fraction, Equilibrium equivalent concentration, Indoor radon, Mass exhalation rate",
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N2 - In this study, the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 222 Rn, and 40 K, emanation fractions (P), equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC), and mass exhalation rates (E m ) of radon released from building materials used in Malaysia were studied using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detector. Radiological parameters [activity concentration index (ACI), indoor air-absorbed dose rate (D in ), annual effective dose (AED in ) from external and internal (E Rn ), soft tissues (H ST ) and lung (H L ), and effective dose equivalent (H eff )] were estimated to evaluate radiological hazards due to the use of these building materials: sand, cement, gravel, bricks, tiles, fly ash, white cement, and ceramic raw materials. The measured P, EEC, and E m vary from 10 to 30%, 0.9 to 22 Bq m −3 , and 33 to 674 mBq h −1  kg −1 , respectively, while the calculated ACI and AED in vary from 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.1 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.4 ± 0.6 mSv y −1 , respectively. On the other hand, the internal annual effective dose ranges from 0.1 to 1.4 mSv y −1 . The estimated radiological risk parameters were below the recommended maximum values, and radiological hazards associated with building materials under investigation are therefore negligible.

AB - In this study, the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 222 Rn, and 40 K, emanation fractions (P), equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC), and mass exhalation rates (E m ) of radon released from building materials used in Malaysia were studied using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detector. Radiological parameters [activity concentration index (ACI), indoor air-absorbed dose rate (D in ), annual effective dose (AED in ) from external and internal (E Rn ), soft tissues (H ST ) and lung (H L ), and effective dose equivalent (H eff )] were estimated to evaluate radiological hazards due to the use of these building materials: sand, cement, gravel, bricks, tiles, fly ash, white cement, and ceramic raw materials. The measured P, EEC, and E m vary from 10 to 30%, 0.9 to 22 Bq m −3 , and 33 to 674 mBq h −1  kg −1 , respectively, while the calculated ACI and AED in vary from 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.1 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.4 ± 0.6 mSv y −1 , respectively. On the other hand, the internal annual effective dose ranges from 0.1 to 1.4 mSv y −1 . The estimated radiological risk parameters were below the recommended maximum values, and radiological hazards associated with building materials under investigation are therefore negligible.

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