Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification rbd palm oil over homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biolubricant preparation

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Abstract

Crude glycerol samples used in this study consisted of crude glycerol (CGI) produced from homogeneous catalyst (NaOH) obtained from Golden Hope biodiesel plant and crude glycerol (CG2) as a product of heterogeneous catalysed transesterification RBD palm oil using KOH/Al2OI catalyst. KOH/Al2O3 catalyst was produced by wet impregnation method and characterized by using BET, XRD and SEM-EDX methods. 15% KOH/ Al2O3has BET surface area of 26.1 m2 g-1 compared with 100.4 m2 g-1 for fresh Al2O3. The first purification stage of the crude glycerol was achieved by employing the neutralization method followed by micro filtration and ion exchange resins methods. Inorganic salts as a result of the neutralization with 85% v/v phosphoric acid were filtered using syringe filter 0.45 μm. Only glycerol peak could be detected using a Dionex C-l 8 column in the HPLC indicating that the neutralization step enabled the removal of excess homogeneous catalyst as well as the unreacted free fatty acids in the crude glycerol samples. The free ions from salt and catalyst were then eliminated through ion exchange process using Amberlite resins to produce higher glycerol purity. The samples were also analyzed using FTIR to check on their purity level and to detect any impurity that may still exist. The products of this 3-step purification method were deemed comparable to that of a commercial pure glycerol based on the viscosity, pH value, free fatty acid value, moisture content and density rendering them as competitive feedstock for the biolubricant production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2590-2595
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Sciences
Volume10
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Transesterification
Glycerol
Purification
Catalysts
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Salts
Ion Exchange Resins
Syringes
Microfiltration
Biofuels
palm oil
Impregnation
Feedstocks
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Ion exchange
Moisture
Resins
Viscosity
Impurities
Ions

Keywords

  • Crude glycerol
  • Heterogeneous catalyst
  • Homogeneous catalyst
  • Ion exchange resin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

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title = "Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification rbd palm oil over homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biolubricant preparation",
abstract = "Crude glycerol samples used in this study consisted of crude glycerol (CGI) produced from homogeneous catalyst (NaOH) obtained from Golden Hope biodiesel plant and crude glycerol (CG2) as a product of heterogeneous catalysed transesterification RBD palm oil using KOH/Al2OI catalyst. KOH/Al2O3 catalyst was produced by wet impregnation method and characterized by using BET, XRD and SEM-EDX methods. 15{\%} KOH/ Al2O3has BET surface area of 26.1 m2 g-1 compared with 100.4 m2 g-1 for fresh Al2O3. The first purification stage of the crude glycerol was achieved by employing the neutralization method followed by micro filtration and ion exchange resins methods. Inorganic salts as a result of the neutralization with 85{\%} v/v phosphoric acid were filtered using syringe filter 0.45 μm. Only glycerol peak could be detected using a Dionex C-l 8 column in the HPLC indicating that the neutralization step enabled the removal of excess homogeneous catalyst as well as the unreacted free fatty acids in the crude glycerol samples. The free ions from salt and catalyst were then eliminated through ion exchange process using Amberlite resins to produce higher glycerol purity. The samples were also analyzed using FTIR to check on their purity level and to detect any impurity that may still exist. The products of this 3-step purification method were deemed comparable to that of a commercial pure glycerol based on the viscosity, pH value, free fatty acid value, moisture content and density rendering them as competitive feedstock for the biolubricant production.",
keywords = "Crude glycerol, Heterogeneous catalyst, Homogeneous catalyst, Ion exchange resin",
author = "{Wan Nor Roslam}, {Wan Isahak} and Manal Ismail and Yarmo, {Mohd. Ambar} and {Md Jahim}, Jamaliah and Jumat Salimon",
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T1 - Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification rbd palm oil over homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biolubricant preparation

AU - Wan Nor Roslam, Wan Isahak

AU - Ismail, Manal

AU - Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar

AU - Md Jahim, Jamaliah

AU - Salimon, Jumat

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Crude glycerol samples used in this study consisted of crude glycerol (CGI) produced from homogeneous catalyst (NaOH) obtained from Golden Hope biodiesel plant and crude glycerol (CG2) as a product of heterogeneous catalysed transesterification RBD palm oil using KOH/Al2OI catalyst. KOH/Al2O3 catalyst was produced by wet impregnation method and characterized by using BET, XRD and SEM-EDX methods. 15% KOH/ Al2O3has BET surface area of 26.1 m2 g-1 compared with 100.4 m2 g-1 for fresh Al2O3. The first purification stage of the crude glycerol was achieved by employing the neutralization method followed by micro filtration and ion exchange resins methods. Inorganic salts as a result of the neutralization with 85% v/v phosphoric acid were filtered using syringe filter 0.45 μm. Only glycerol peak could be detected using a Dionex C-l 8 column in the HPLC indicating that the neutralization step enabled the removal of excess homogeneous catalyst as well as the unreacted free fatty acids in the crude glycerol samples. The free ions from salt and catalyst were then eliminated through ion exchange process using Amberlite resins to produce higher glycerol purity. The samples were also analyzed using FTIR to check on their purity level and to detect any impurity that may still exist. The products of this 3-step purification method were deemed comparable to that of a commercial pure glycerol based on the viscosity, pH value, free fatty acid value, moisture content and density rendering them as competitive feedstock for the biolubricant production.

AB - Crude glycerol samples used in this study consisted of crude glycerol (CGI) produced from homogeneous catalyst (NaOH) obtained from Golden Hope biodiesel plant and crude glycerol (CG2) as a product of heterogeneous catalysed transesterification RBD palm oil using KOH/Al2OI catalyst. KOH/Al2O3 catalyst was produced by wet impregnation method and characterized by using BET, XRD and SEM-EDX methods. 15% KOH/ Al2O3has BET surface area of 26.1 m2 g-1 compared with 100.4 m2 g-1 for fresh Al2O3. The first purification stage of the crude glycerol was achieved by employing the neutralization method followed by micro filtration and ion exchange resins methods. Inorganic salts as a result of the neutralization with 85% v/v phosphoric acid were filtered using syringe filter 0.45 μm. Only glycerol peak could be detected using a Dionex C-l 8 column in the HPLC indicating that the neutralization step enabled the removal of excess homogeneous catalyst as well as the unreacted free fatty acids in the crude glycerol samples. The free ions from salt and catalyst were then eliminated through ion exchange process using Amberlite resins to produce higher glycerol purity. The samples were also analyzed using FTIR to check on their purity level and to detect any impurity that may still exist. The products of this 3-step purification method were deemed comparable to that of a commercial pure glycerol based on the viscosity, pH value, free fatty acid value, moisture content and density rendering them as competitive feedstock for the biolubricant production.

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