Proton Pump Inhibitors and Fracture Risk

A Review of Current Evidence and Mechanisms Involved

Benjamin Ka Seng Thong, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Chin Kok Yong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The number of patients with gastroesophageal problems taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is increasing. Several studies suggested a possible association between PPIs and fracture risk, especially hip fractures, but the relationship remains contentious. This review aimed to investigate the longitudinal studies published in the last five years on the relationship between PPIs and fracture risk. The mechanism underlying this relationship was also explored. Overall, PPIs were positively associated with elevated fracture risk in multiple studies (n = 14), although some studies reported no significant relationship (n = 4). Increased gastrin production and hypochlorhydria are the two main mechanisms that affect bone remodeling, mineral absorption, and muscle strength, contributing to increased fracture risk among PPI users. As a conclusion, there is a potential relationship between PPIs and fracture risks. Therefore, patients on long-term PPI treatment should pay attention to bone health status and consider prophylaxis to decrease fracture risk.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Volume16
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 May 2019

Fingerprint

Proton Pump Inhibitors
Achlorhydria
Bone Remodeling
Gastrins
Hip Fractures
Muscle Strength
Health Status
Minerals
Longitudinal Studies
Bone and Bones

Keywords

  • bone
  • compression
  • omeprazole
  • osteoporosis
  • pantoprazole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

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abstract = "The number of patients with gastroesophageal problems taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is increasing. Several studies suggested a possible association between PPIs and fracture risk, especially hip fractures, but the relationship remains contentious. This review aimed to investigate the longitudinal studies published in the last five years on the relationship between PPIs and fracture risk. The mechanism underlying this relationship was also explored. Overall, PPIs were positively associated with elevated fracture risk in multiple studies (n = 14), although some studies reported no significant relationship (n = 4). Increased gastrin production and hypochlorhydria are the two main mechanisms that affect bone remodeling, mineral absorption, and muscle strength, contributing to increased fracture risk among PPI users. As a conclusion, there is a potential relationship between PPIs and fracture risks. Therefore, patients on long-term PPI treatment should pay attention to bone health status and consider prophylaxis to decrease fracture risk.",
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N2 - The number of patients with gastroesophageal problems taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is increasing. Several studies suggested a possible association between PPIs and fracture risk, especially hip fractures, but the relationship remains contentious. This review aimed to investigate the longitudinal studies published in the last five years on the relationship between PPIs and fracture risk. The mechanism underlying this relationship was also explored. Overall, PPIs were positively associated with elevated fracture risk in multiple studies (n = 14), although some studies reported no significant relationship (n = 4). Increased gastrin production and hypochlorhydria are the two main mechanisms that affect bone remodeling, mineral absorption, and muscle strength, contributing to increased fracture risk among PPI users. As a conclusion, there is a potential relationship between PPIs and fracture risks. Therefore, patients on long-term PPI treatment should pay attention to bone health status and consider prophylaxis to decrease fracture risk.

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