Protective effects of phyllanthus amarus against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats

Akilandeshwari Alagan, Ibrahim Jantan, Kumolosasi Msi Endang, Satoshi Ogawa, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Norazrina Azmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is widely studied for its hepatoprotective properties but has recently received increasing attention due to its diverse anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of PA in modulating immune responses in the central nervous system leading to protection against functional changes remain unexplored. Therefore, we sought to examine the protective effects of 80% v/v ethanol extract of PA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced non-spatial memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Methods: Selected major phytoconstituents of PA extract were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subchronic neurotoxicity was performed in male Wistar rats given daily oral administration of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the PA extract. Their neurobehavioral activities (functional observation battery and locomotor activity) were scored, and the extracted brains were examined for neuropathological changes. Rats were treated orally with vehicle (5% Tween 20), PA extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), or ibuprofen (IBF; 40 mg/kg) for 14 and 28 days before being subjected to novel object discrimination test. All groups were challenged with LPS (1 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally a day prior to the behavioral tests except for the negative control group. At the end of the behavioral tests, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD11b/c integrin expression, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were determined in the brain tissues. Results: Gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, niranthin, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, phyltetralin, and isonirtetralin were identified in the PA extract. Subchronic administration of PA extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed no abnormalities in neurobehavior and brain histology. PA extract administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg for 14 and 28 days effectively protected the rodents from LPS-induced memory impairment. Similar doses significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the release of proteins like TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS in the brain tissue. NO levels, CD11b/c integrin expression, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were also reduced as compared with those in the LPS-challenged group. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with PA extract for 14 and 28 days was comparable with pre-treatment with IBF in prevention of memory impairment and alleviation of neuroinflammatory responses induced by LPS. Further studies are essential to identify the bioactive phytochemicals and the precise underlying mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number632
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Volume10
Issue numberJUN
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Phyllanthus
Lipopolysaccharides
Synaptophysin
Brain
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Interleukin-1
Integrins
Nitric Oxide
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Cognitive Dysfunction
Ellagic Acid
Gallic Acid
Polysorbates
Ibuprofen
Phytochemicals
Locomotion
Oral Administration
Wistar Rats
Rodentia
Histology

Keywords

  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neuroprotection
  • Non-spatial memory
  • Phyllanthus amarus
  • Pro-inflammatory markers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Protective effects of phyllanthus amarus against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats. / Alagan, Akilandeshwari; Jantan, Ibrahim; Endang, Kumolosasi Msi; Ogawa, Satoshi; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini; Azmi, Norazrina.

In: Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 10, No. JUN, 632, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is widely studied for its hepatoprotective properties but has recently received increasing attention due to its diverse anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of PA in modulating immune responses in the central nervous system leading to protection against functional changes remain unexplored. Therefore, we sought to examine the protective effects of 80{\%} v/v ethanol extract of PA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced non-spatial memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Methods: Selected major phytoconstituents of PA extract were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subchronic neurotoxicity was performed in male Wistar rats given daily oral administration of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the PA extract. Their neurobehavioral activities (functional observation battery and locomotor activity) were scored, and the extracted brains were examined for neuropathological changes. Rats were treated orally with vehicle (5{\%} Tween 20), PA extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), or ibuprofen (IBF; 40 mg/kg) for 14 and 28 days before being subjected to novel object discrimination test. All groups were challenged with LPS (1 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally a day prior to the behavioral tests except for the negative control group. At the end of the behavioral tests, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD11b/c integrin expression, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were determined in the brain tissues. Results: Gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, niranthin, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, phyltetralin, and isonirtetralin were identified in the PA extract. Subchronic administration of PA extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed no abnormalities in neurobehavior and brain histology. PA extract administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg for 14 and 28 days effectively protected the rodents from LPS-induced memory impairment. Similar doses significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the release of proteins like TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS in the brain tissue. NO levels, CD11b/c integrin expression, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were also reduced as compared with those in the LPS-challenged group. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with PA extract for 14 and 28 days was comparable with pre-treatment with IBF in prevention of memory impairment and alleviation of neuroinflammatory responses induced by LPS. Further studies are essential to identify the bioactive phytochemicals and the precise underlying mechanisms.",
keywords = "Neuroinflammation, Neuroprotection, Non-spatial memory, Phyllanthus amarus, Pro-inflammatory markers",
author = "Akilandeshwari Alagan and Ibrahim Jantan and Endang, {Kumolosasi Msi} and Satoshi Ogawa and Abdullah, {Maizaton Atmadini} and Norazrina Azmi",
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AU - Alagan, Akilandeshwari

AU - Jantan, Ibrahim

AU - Endang, Kumolosasi Msi

AU - Ogawa, Satoshi

AU - Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

AU - Azmi, Norazrina

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N2 - Background: Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is widely studied for its hepatoprotective properties but has recently received increasing attention due to its diverse anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of PA in modulating immune responses in the central nervous system leading to protection against functional changes remain unexplored. Therefore, we sought to examine the protective effects of 80% v/v ethanol extract of PA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced non-spatial memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Methods: Selected major phytoconstituents of PA extract were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subchronic neurotoxicity was performed in male Wistar rats given daily oral administration of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the PA extract. Their neurobehavioral activities (functional observation battery and locomotor activity) were scored, and the extracted brains were examined for neuropathological changes. Rats were treated orally with vehicle (5% Tween 20), PA extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), or ibuprofen (IBF; 40 mg/kg) for 14 and 28 days before being subjected to novel object discrimination test. All groups were challenged with LPS (1 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally a day prior to the behavioral tests except for the negative control group. At the end of the behavioral tests, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD11b/c integrin expression, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were determined in the brain tissues. Results: Gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, niranthin, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, phyltetralin, and isonirtetralin were identified in the PA extract. Subchronic administration of PA extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed no abnormalities in neurobehavior and brain histology. PA extract administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg for 14 and 28 days effectively protected the rodents from LPS-induced memory impairment. Similar doses significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the release of proteins like TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS in the brain tissue. NO levels, CD11b/c integrin expression, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were also reduced as compared with those in the LPS-challenged group. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with PA extract for 14 and 28 days was comparable with pre-treatment with IBF in prevention of memory impairment and alleviation of neuroinflammatory responses induced by LPS. Further studies are essential to identify the bioactive phytochemicals and the precise underlying mechanisms.

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KW - Neuroinflammation

KW - Neuroprotection

KW - Non-spatial memory

KW - Phyllanthus amarus

KW - Pro-inflammatory markers

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