Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and its associated risk factors during early pregnancy in a tropical country

A pilot study

Muhammad Azfar Shairazi Mohd Ariffin, Fatin Norhafizah Fazil, Nursabrina Mohd Yassin, Nurul Syahida Junaida, Poh Vien Gan, Rahana Abd Rahman, Chin Kok Yong, Abd Aziz Nor Haslinda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency (circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <50 nmol/L) is a major health problem especially among pregnant women because it can affect the health of both mother and foetus. This problem is prevalent even among pregnant women living in tropical countries despite the abundance of sunlight. Aim: This study aimed to determine vitamin D status in pregnant women at 11-16 weeks of gestation and its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A pilot descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 57 pregnant women at early pregnancy at a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The subjects answered physician-guided questionnaire consisting of demographic information, medical history, dietary intake. Information regarding sun protection regime was included and duration of sunlight exposure was calculated using the formula: minutes of sunlight exposure per day multiply by days of sunlight exposure per week. Skin colour was assessed by using Fitzpatrick classification. Blood of pregnant women at 11-16 weeks of gestation was collected to determine the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. All results were analysed using SPSS software and results were considered significant when the p-value was <0.05. Results: The subjects (mean age 32.88±4.52 years) were predominantly Malay (85.96%). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among these women was 91.23%. Vitamin D status of the subjects was not associated with working status (p=1.00), dietary vitamin D intake (p=0.90), skin colour (p=0.42), attire choice (p=0.22) and duration of sun exposure (p=0.09). The total daily vitamin D dietary intake of the subjects taking supplements containing vitamin D was significantly higher than non-users (p<0.05). The other dietary sources did not influence the total dietary intake of vitamin D significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high among urban Malaysian women at early pregnancy. The associations between risk factors and vitamin D status in these women are generally not significant. Consuming supplements containing vitamin D at early pregnancy could improve the daily vitamin D intake of these vitamin D deficient women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)QC18-QC22
JournalJournal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018

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Avitaminosis
Vitamin D
Vitamins
Pregnancy
Sunlight
Pregnant Women
Vitamin D Deficiency
Skin Pigmentation
Solar System
Sun
Skin
Women's Rights
Malaysia
Health
Color
Fetus
Medical problems
Software
Cross-Sectional Studies
Mothers

Keywords

  • 25-hydroxyvitamin d
  • Dietary intake
  • Sun exposure
  • Supplement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and its associated risk factors during early pregnancy in a tropical country : A pilot study. / Ariffin, Muhammad Azfar Shairazi Mohd; Fazil, Fatin Norhafizah; Yassin, Nursabrina Mohd; Junaida, Nurul Syahida; Gan, Poh Vien; Abd Rahman, Rahana; Kok Yong, Chin; Nor Haslinda, Abd Aziz.

In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, Vol. 12, No. 9, 01.09.2018, p. QC18-QC22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ariffin, Muhammad Azfar Shairazi Mohd ; Fazil, Fatin Norhafizah ; Yassin, Nursabrina Mohd ; Junaida, Nurul Syahida ; Gan, Poh Vien ; Abd Rahman, Rahana ; Kok Yong, Chin ; Nor Haslinda, Abd Aziz. / Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and its associated risk factors during early pregnancy in a tropical country : A pilot study. In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2018 ; Vol. 12, No. 9. pp. QC18-QC22.
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abstract = "Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency (circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <50 nmol/L) is a major health problem especially among pregnant women because it can affect the health of both mother and foetus. This problem is prevalent even among pregnant women living in tropical countries despite the abundance of sunlight. Aim: This study aimed to determine vitamin D status in pregnant women at 11-16 weeks of gestation and its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A pilot descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 57 pregnant women at early pregnancy at a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The subjects answered physician-guided questionnaire consisting of demographic information, medical history, dietary intake. Information regarding sun protection regime was included and duration of sunlight exposure was calculated using the formula: minutes of sunlight exposure per day multiply by days of sunlight exposure per week. Skin colour was assessed by using Fitzpatrick classification. Blood of pregnant women at 11-16 weeks of gestation was collected to determine the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. All results were analysed using SPSS software and results were considered significant when the p-value was <0.05. Results: The subjects (mean age 32.88±4.52 years) were predominantly Malay (85.96{\%}). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among these women was 91.23{\%}. Vitamin D status of the subjects was not associated with working status (p=1.00), dietary vitamin D intake (p=0.90), skin colour (p=0.42), attire choice (p=0.22) and duration of sun exposure (p=0.09). The total daily vitamin D dietary intake of the subjects taking supplements containing vitamin D was significantly higher than non-users (p<0.05). The other dietary sources did not influence the total dietary intake of vitamin D significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high among urban Malaysian women at early pregnancy. The associations between risk factors and vitamin D status in these women are generally not significant. Consuming supplements containing vitamin D at early pregnancy could improve the daily vitamin D intake of these vitamin D deficient women.",
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