Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies amongst young Malaysian diabetics

W. M. Wan Nazaimoon, I. Faridah, M. Singaraveloo, I. S. Ismail, W. B. Wan Mohamad, R. Letchuman, Rahmah Rasat, R. Pendek, F. L. Hew, I. H. Sheriff, B. A K Khalid

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Abstract

This study determined the prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD Ab) in a group of 926 young Malaysian diabetics of three ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Patients were clinically diagnosed to be Type 1 or Type 2 before the age of 40 years. The overall GAD Ab positivity was 17.4% (161/926), significantly higher in the Type 1 than the Type 2 diabetics (35.5%, 116/329 vs. 7.5%, 45/597, P = 0.0001). Compared to GAD Ab negative patients, seropositive diabetics were diagnosed at younger age (21.2 ± 0.9 vs. 27.4 ± 0.3 y, P = 0.0001), had lower fasting (289 ± 27.4 vs. 640 ± 17.6 pmol/l, P = 0.0001) and post-glucagon C-peptide levels (527 ± 51.8 vs. 1030 ± 28.9 pmol/l, P = 0.0001). There were no racial differences in the prevalence of GAD Ab; of the total Type 1, 30.8, 36.4, and 39.4% were Malay, Chinese, and Indian diabetics, respectively and of the total Type 2, 8.8, 8.2, and 4.4% were Malay, Chinese, and Indian diabetics respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between GAD Ab and the post-glucagon C-peptide levels, suggesting that GAD Ab do play a role in the β-cells destruction and could be an important immune marker for the LADA group. This study reconfirmed previous reports that the autoimmune mechanisms in the Type 1 Asian diabetics are indeed different from the Caucasians, and further investigations should be carried out to explain the differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-66
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1999

Fingerprint

Glutamate Decarboxylase
Antibodies
C-Peptide
Glucagon
Ethnic Groups
Fasting
Cross-Sectional Studies
Biomarkers

Keywords

  • Chinese
  • Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies
  • Indian
  • Malay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Wan Nazaimoon, W. M., Faridah, I., Singaraveloo, M., Ismail, I. S., Wan Mohamad, W. B., Letchuman, R., ... Khalid, B. A. K. (1999). Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies amongst young Malaysian diabetics. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 43(1), 59-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8227(98)00108-9

Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies amongst young Malaysian diabetics. / Wan Nazaimoon, W. M.; Faridah, I.; Singaraveloo, M.; Ismail, I. S.; Wan Mohamad, W. B.; Letchuman, R.; Rasat, Rahmah; Pendek, R.; Hew, F. L.; Sheriff, I. H.; Khalid, B. A K.

In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 43, No. 1, 01.01.1999, p. 59-66.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wan Nazaimoon, WM, Faridah, I, Singaraveloo, M, Ismail, IS, Wan Mohamad, WB, Letchuman, R, Rasat, R, Pendek, R, Hew, FL, Sheriff, IH & Khalid, BAK 1999, 'Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies amongst young Malaysian diabetics', Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 59-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8227(98)00108-9
Wan Nazaimoon WM, Faridah I, Singaraveloo M, Ismail IS, Wan Mohamad WB, Letchuman R et al. Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies amongst young Malaysian diabetics. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 1999 Jan 1;43(1):59-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8227(98)00108-9
Wan Nazaimoon, W. M. ; Faridah, I. ; Singaraveloo, M. ; Ismail, I. S. ; Wan Mohamad, W. B. ; Letchuman, R. ; Rasat, Rahmah ; Pendek, R. ; Hew, F. L. ; Sheriff, I. H. ; Khalid, B. A K. / Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies amongst young Malaysian diabetics. In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 1999 ; Vol. 43, No. 1. pp. 59-66.
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abstract = "This study determined the prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD Ab) in a group of 926 young Malaysian diabetics of three ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Patients were clinically diagnosed to be Type 1 or Type 2 before the age of 40 years. The overall GAD Ab positivity was 17.4{\%} (161/926), significantly higher in the Type 1 than the Type 2 diabetics (35.5{\%}, 116/329 vs. 7.5{\%}, 45/597, P = 0.0001). Compared to GAD Ab negative patients, seropositive diabetics were diagnosed at younger age (21.2 ± 0.9 vs. 27.4 ± 0.3 y, P = 0.0001), had lower fasting (289 ± 27.4 vs. 640 ± 17.6 pmol/l, P = 0.0001) and post-glucagon C-peptide levels (527 ± 51.8 vs. 1030 ± 28.9 pmol/l, P = 0.0001). There were no racial differences in the prevalence of GAD Ab; of the total Type 1, 30.8, 36.4, and 39.4{\%} were Malay, Chinese, and Indian diabetics, respectively and of the total Type 2, 8.8, 8.2, and 4.4{\%} were Malay, Chinese, and Indian diabetics respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between GAD Ab and the post-glucagon C-peptide levels, suggesting that GAD Ab do play a role in the β-cells destruction and could be an important immune marker for the LADA group. This study reconfirmed previous reports that the autoimmune mechanisms in the Type 1 Asian diabetics are indeed different from the Caucasians, and further investigations should be carried out to explain the differences.",
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