Prevalence, clinical predictors and diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with persistent respiratory symptoms.

K. Siti Mazliah, M. Z. Norzila, C. T. Deng, A. Zulfiqar, B. H. Azizi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Paediatric Institute among infants and children with chronic respiratory symptoms with the following objectives: i) to determine the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with persistent respiratory symptoms, ii) to identify the clinical predictors of GOR (Gastro-oesophageal reflux) in children with persistent respiratory symptoms and iii) assess the validity of abdominal ultrasound, barium oesophagogram and chest radiograph in diagnosing GOR in these patients. Forty-four patients were recruited over a period of six months. All the presenting symptoms were identified. The patients were subjected to chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound, barium oesophagogram and 24-hour pH oesophageal monitoring. The predictive validity of clinical symptoms, chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound and barium oesophagogram were assessed. Twenty-four hours oesophageal pH was the gold standard to diagnose GOR. The mean age of patients was 9.1 months (1-58 months). Thirty-one patients (70.5%) were confirmed to have GOR by pH study. Respiratory symptoms alone were not useful to predict GOR. Cough had the highest sensitivity of 51.6%. Stridor, wheeze and choking each had a specificity of 76%. Wheeze, vomiting, choking and stridor were identified to have high specificity (90-100%) in diagnosing GOR when any two symptoms were taken in combination. Collapse/consolidation was the commonest radiological abnormality but had low sensitivity (35.5%) and specificity (53.8%). However hyperinflation on chest radiograph had a specificity of 92.3% with positive predictive value of 80% in diagnosing GOR. Barium oesophagogram has low sensitivity (37.9%) and moderate specificity (75%) in diagnosing GOR in children with respiratory symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound was a valid mode of diagnosing GOR when there were three or more reflux episodes demonstrated during the screening period with a specificity of 90.9%. However the sensitivity was low i.e. 20-25%. The specificity increased to 90-100% when two positive tests were taken in combination (abdominal ultrasound and barium oesophagogram). However the sensitivity remained low (10-20%). Chest radiograph did not improve the predictive value when considered with the above tests. Combination of clinical symptoms were useful as clinical predictors of GOR. In the absence of a pH oesophageal monitoring, a combination of barium oesophagogram and ultrasound may be helpful in diagnosing GOR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-187
Number of pages8
JournalThe Medical journal of Malaysia
Volume55
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2000
Externally publishedYes

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Gastroesophageal Reflux
Barium
Thorax
Esophageal pH Monitoring
Respiratory Sounds
Airway Obstruction
Cough
Vomiting
Cross-Sectional Studies
Pediatrics
Sensitivity and Specificity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Prevalence, clinical predictors and diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with persistent respiratory symptoms. / Siti Mazliah, K.; Norzila, M. Z.; Deng, C. T.; Zulfiqar, A.; Azizi, B. H.

In: The Medical journal of Malaysia, Vol. 55, No. 2, 06.2000, p. 180-187.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Siti Mazliah, K, Norzila, MZ, Deng, CT, Zulfiqar, A & Azizi, BH 2000, 'Prevalence, clinical predictors and diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with persistent respiratory symptoms.', The Medical journal of Malaysia, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 180-187.
Siti Mazliah, K. ; Norzila, M. Z. ; Deng, C. T. ; Zulfiqar, A. ; Azizi, B. H. / Prevalence, clinical predictors and diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with persistent respiratory symptoms. In: The Medical journal of Malaysia. 2000 ; Vol. 55, No. 2. pp. 180-187.
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