Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Mohamed Kamel Abdul Ghani, Emelia Osman, `Azlin Muhammad @ Mohd Yasin, Anisah Nordin, Siti Nor Azreen, Fatmah Md Salleh, Nuraffini Ghazali, Mekadina Bernadus, Norhayati Moktar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings: Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions: Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention and control strategies of this infection in different Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere48165
JournalPLoS One
Volume7
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2012

Fingerprint

Entamoeba histolytica
Malaysia
nationalities and ethnic groups
Ethnic Groups
risk factors
Infection
infection
Entamoeba
Epidemiology
Vegetables
Public health
Sedimentation
Washing
Ether
Formaldehyde
Animals
Gardening
Soils
Planning
Hand Disinfection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia. / Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Muhammad @ Mohd Yasin, `Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 10, e48165, 25.10.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shahrul Anuar, Tengku ; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham ; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel ; Osman, Emelia ; Muhammad @ Mohd Yasin, `Azlin ; Nordin, Anisah ; Nor Azreen, Siti ; Md Salleh, Fatmah ; Ghazali, Nuraffini ; Bernadus, Mekadina ; Moktar, Norhayati. / Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia. In: PLoS One. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 10.
@article{2dced2a6694c4c6b82875d16055658fb,
title = "Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia",
abstract = "Background: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings: Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7{\%} (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5{\%} (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5{\%} (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions: Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention and control strategies of this infection in different Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.",
author = "{Shahrul Anuar}, Tengku and {M. Al-Mekhlafi}, Hesham and {Abdul Ghani}, {Mohamed Kamel} and Emelia Osman and {Muhammad @ Mohd Yasin}, `Azlin and Anisah Nordin and {Nor Azreen}, Siti and {Md Salleh}, Fatmah and Nuraffini Ghazali and Mekadina Bernadus and Norhayati Moktar",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0048165",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

AU - Shahrul Anuar, Tengku

AU - M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham

AU - Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel

AU - Osman, Emelia

AU - Muhammad @ Mohd Yasin, `Azlin

AU - Nordin, Anisah

AU - Nor Azreen, Siti

AU - Md Salleh, Fatmah

AU - Ghazali, Nuraffini

AU - Bernadus, Mekadina

AU - Moktar, Norhayati

PY - 2012/10/25

Y1 - 2012/10/25

N2 - Background: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings: Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions: Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention and control strategies of this infection in different Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

AB - Background: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings: Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions: Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention and control strategies of this infection in different Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84868152142&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84868152142&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0048165

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0048165

M3 - Article

C2 - 23133561

AN - SCOPUS:84868152142

VL - 7

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 10

M1 - e48165

ER -