Preparation of novolak type resin by liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) using sulphuric acid as a catalyst

Ali Ahmadzadeh, Sarani Zakaria, Dahlan Mohammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in phenol was carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst in the reflux-condenser system. The effects of the reaction temperature and sulphuric acid concentration on the liquefaction reaction, physical, and mechanical properties of phenolated EFB (PEFB) resin were studied. The reaction yield increased as the reaction temperature and catalyst concentration increased from 110°C to 150°C and 3% to 8%, respectively. However, no significant difference in results was observed between samples reacting at 130°C and 150°C using 5% and 8% catalyst. The thermal gravimetric analysis tests have indicated that the thermal stability of PEFB increases by increasing the catalyst concentration. However, the results do not show any important variation in the thermal stability by increasing the liquefaction temperature. From studies of differential scanning calorimetry it was found that the curing enthalpy of PEFB with hexamethylenetetramine increases by increasing the liquefaction temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-449
Number of pages9
JournalIranian Polymer Journal (English Edition)
Volume17
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2008

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Liquefaction
Fruits
Resins
Catalysts
Acids
Thermodynamic stability
Methenamine
Temperature
Gravimetric analysis
Phenol
Phenols
Curing
Differential scanning calorimetry
Enthalpy
Physical properties
Mechanical properties
palm oil

Keywords

  • Liquefaction
  • Molecular weight
  • Novolak resin
  • Palm oil empty fruit bunch
  • Thermogravimetric analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Preparation of novolak type resin by liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) using sulphuric acid as a catalyst. / Ahmadzadeh, Ali; Zakaria, Sarani; Mohammad, Dahlan.

In: Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition), Vol. 17, No. 6, 06.2008, p. 441-449.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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