Preparation of novolak resin by liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and characterization of EFB residue

Ali Ahmadzadeh, Sarani Zakaria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) in phenol was carried out in the presence of various types of acids as catalyst. Then the nonreacted EFB (residue) was analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy. The result show that strong acids produce lower residue compared to weak acids. The TGA results show that the residue possesses a better hydrophobicity and better heat resistance compared to the EFB. The XRD results show the crystallinity of cellulose has been reduced tremendously in the residue reacted with sulfuric acid. The FT-IR results show that for the lowest residue, some of the functional groups belonging to the lignin structure have vanished.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-16
Number of pages7
JournalPolymer - Plastics Technology and Engineering
Volume48
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Liquefaction
Fruits
Resins
Gravimetric analysis
Acids
X ray diffraction
Lignin
Hydrophobicity
Phenol
Sulfuric acid
Heat resistance
Cellulose
Functional groups
Phenols
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Fourier transforms
Infrared radiation
Scanning electron microscopy
Catalysts

Keywords

  • EFB
  • Liquefaction
  • Novolak resin
  • Residue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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