Preparation of Flexible Substrate for Patch Antenna Based on Nickel Aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) Synthesized by Sol–Gel Method

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Abstract

In this study, a flexible substrate for a patch antenna based on nickel aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) synthesized by the sol–gel method is presented. Nano-crystalline NiAl 2 O 4 is synthesized by many researchers with several methods, but they have not been explored much for microwave applications. The microwave dielectric properties of NiAl 2 O 4 were investigated to find their employment as an antenna substrate for microwave wave uses. The sol–gel method was employed to synthesize the flexible composite. The establishment of spinel assembly and crystalline dimension were assured using x-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology of the samples was clarified by means of the scanning electron microscopy. Relative permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of the specimen were restrained by a DAK 200 MHz to 20 GHz dielectric measurement kit and obtained as 4.8 and 0.04, respectively. The energy bandgap was found to be 2.8 eV from optical analysis, which implies that the synthesized nanoparticles are semiconductors by nature. The substrate layer was prepared by mixing NiAl 2 O 4 nano-powder with polyvinyl acetate glue dried up by means of heat. The compatibility of the prepared substrate material for making a microstrip patch antenna is investigated by utilizing the finite-difference method based on a computer simulation technology microwave studio. Finally, the patch antenna is fabricated on NiAl 2 O 4 flexible composite substrate employing 200 nm copper coating over that 1 mm thick substrate by magnetron sputtering to the simulation process following the simulation process, which showed outstanding performances, measured through a N5227A PNA microwave network analyzer and offers a wide band of operating frequency of 8–15 GHz in X-band and K u -band of microwave frequency spectra. The operating band of frequency can be arbitrarily chosen by modifying substrate and/or radiating elements. The simulated and measured results are matched satisfactorily.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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patch antennas
Microstrip antennas
Nickel
nickel
preparation
Substrates
Microwaves
microwaves
Polyvinyl acetates
Crystalline materials
kits
glues
composite materials
microstrip antennas
Electric network analyzers
Glues
Microwave frequencies
Studios
Composite materials
Dielectric losses

Keywords

  • Flexible dielectric substrate
  • nickel aluminate
  • patch antenna
  • sol–gel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Preparation of Flexible Substrate for Patch Antenna Based on Nickel Aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) Synthesized by Sol–Gel Method",
abstract = "In this study, a flexible substrate for a patch antenna based on nickel aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) synthesized by the sol–gel method is presented. Nano-crystalline NiAl 2 O 4 is synthesized by many researchers with several methods, but they have not been explored much for microwave applications. The microwave dielectric properties of NiAl 2 O 4 were investigated to find their employment as an antenna substrate for microwave wave uses. The sol–gel method was employed to synthesize the flexible composite. The establishment of spinel assembly and crystalline dimension were assured using x-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology of the samples was clarified by means of the scanning electron microscopy. Relative permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of the specimen were restrained by a DAK 200 MHz to 20 GHz dielectric measurement kit and obtained as 4.8 and 0.04, respectively. The energy bandgap was found to be 2.8 eV from optical analysis, which implies that the synthesized nanoparticles are semiconductors by nature. The substrate layer was prepared by mixing NiAl 2 O 4 nano-powder with polyvinyl acetate glue dried up by means of heat. The compatibility of the prepared substrate material for making a microstrip patch antenna is investigated by utilizing the finite-difference method based on a computer simulation technology microwave studio. Finally, the patch antenna is fabricated on NiAl 2 O 4 flexible composite substrate employing 200 nm copper coating over that 1 mm thick substrate by magnetron sputtering to the simulation process following the simulation process, which showed outstanding performances, measured through a N5227A PNA microwave network analyzer and offers a wide band of operating frequency of 8–15 GHz in X-band and K u -band of microwave frequency spectra. The operating band of frequency can be arbitrarily chosen by modifying substrate and/or radiating elements. The simulated and measured results are matched satisfactorily.",
keywords = "Flexible dielectric substrate, nickel aluminate, patch antenna, sol–gel",
author = "Rahman, {Md Atiqur} and Faruque, {Mohammad Rashed Iqbal} and Islam, {Mohammad Tariqul}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s11664-019-07041-9",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Electronic Materials",
issn = "0361-5235",
publisher = "Springer New York",

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T1 - Preparation of Flexible Substrate for Patch Antenna Based on Nickel Aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) Synthesized by Sol–Gel Method

AU - Rahman, Md Atiqur

AU - Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

AU - Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - In this study, a flexible substrate for a patch antenna based on nickel aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) synthesized by the sol–gel method is presented. Nano-crystalline NiAl 2 O 4 is synthesized by many researchers with several methods, but they have not been explored much for microwave applications. The microwave dielectric properties of NiAl 2 O 4 were investigated to find their employment as an antenna substrate for microwave wave uses. The sol–gel method was employed to synthesize the flexible composite. The establishment of spinel assembly and crystalline dimension were assured using x-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology of the samples was clarified by means of the scanning electron microscopy. Relative permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of the specimen were restrained by a DAK 200 MHz to 20 GHz dielectric measurement kit and obtained as 4.8 and 0.04, respectively. The energy bandgap was found to be 2.8 eV from optical analysis, which implies that the synthesized nanoparticles are semiconductors by nature. The substrate layer was prepared by mixing NiAl 2 O 4 nano-powder with polyvinyl acetate glue dried up by means of heat. The compatibility of the prepared substrate material for making a microstrip patch antenna is investigated by utilizing the finite-difference method based on a computer simulation technology microwave studio. Finally, the patch antenna is fabricated on NiAl 2 O 4 flexible composite substrate employing 200 nm copper coating over that 1 mm thick substrate by magnetron sputtering to the simulation process following the simulation process, which showed outstanding performances, measured through a N5227A PNA microwave network analyzer and offers a wide band of operating frequency of 8–15 GHz in X-band and K u -band of microwave frequency spectra. The operating band of frequency can be arbitrarily chosen by modifying substrate and/or radiating elements. The simulated and measured results are matched satisfactorily.

AB - In this study, a flexible substrate for a patch antenna based on nickel aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) synthesized by the sol–gel method is presented. Nano-crystalline NiAl 2 O 4 is synthesized by many researchers with several methods, but they have not been explored much for microwave applications. The microwave dielectric properties of NiAl 2 O 4 were investigated to find their employment as an antenna substrate for microwave wave uses. The sol–gel method was employed to synthesize the flexible composite. The establishment of spinel assembly and crystalline dimension were assured using x-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology of the samples was clarified by means of the scanning electron microscopy. Relative permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of the specimen were restrained by a DAK 200 MHz to 20 GHz dielectric measurement kit and obtained as 4.8 and 0.04, respectively. The energy bandgap was found to be 2.8 eV from optical analysis, which implies that the synthesized nanoparticles are semiconductors by nature. The substrate layer was prepared by mixing NiAl 2 O 4 nano-powder with polyvinyl acetate glue dried up by means of heat. The compatibility of the prepared substrate material for making a microstrip patch antenna is investigated by utilizing the finite-difference method based on a computer simulation technology microwave studio. Finally, the patch antenna is fabricated on NiAl 2 O 4 flexible composite substrate employing 200 nm copper coating over that 1 mm thick substrate by magnetron sputtering to the simulation process following the simulation process, which showed outstanding performances, measured through a N5227A PNA microwave network analyzer and offers a wide band of operating frequency of 8–15 GHz in X-band and K u -band of microwave frequency spectra. The operating band of frequency can be arbitrarily chosen by modifying substrate and/or radiating elements. The simulated and measured results are matched satisfactorily.

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