Preliminary assessment of Salvadora persica whitening effects on extracted stained teeth

Nadia Halib, Nabilah Bt Nuairy, Haslinda Ramli, Ishak Ahmad, Norinsan Kamil Othman, Salihatun Md Salleh, Saiful Bahari Bakarudin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The roots, twigs and stems of Salvadora persica (S. persica) also known as miswak have been used for centuries as oral hygiene tools. The cleansing efficacy of S. persica is thought to be attributed to the mechanical effects of its fibres. However, there is no study focus on S. persica whitening behaviour. Therefore, this study is conducted to preliminarily assess the whitening effects of S. persica on coffee and tea stained teeth. The bark of S. persica stems were peeled off and the pulps were dried and ground to produce powder. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out to study the properties of S. persica fibre. SEM revealed the presence of crystals of various shapes and sizes that act as natural abrasive agents and might contribute to its whitening effects while EDX identified that these minerals constitute of O (43.44 wt%), C (31.2 wt%), S (11.7 wt%), Ca (11.2 wt%), Na (1.3 wt%) and K (1.04 wt%). The powder later formulated into paste of various concentrations; 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% (w/w). Extracted permanent premolar teeth were cleaned and stained with tea and coffee solutions. Formulations of S. persica fiber paste were then used to brush the teeth and being compared to commercial whitening toothpaste. The teeth shade changes were evaluated using VITAPAN® Classical Shade. After brushing under standardized condition using a brushing simulator machine, it was found that the staining of teeth buccal surface was reduced at least one tone of shade according to the VitaPan® shade.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-125
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Volume7
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Salvadoraceae
Tooth
X-Ray Emission Spectrometry
Coffee
Tea
Ointments
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Powders
Toothpastes
Cheek
Oral Hygiene
Bicuspid
Minerals
Staining and Labeling

Keywords

  • Abrasive
  • Discolouration
  • S. persica
  • Whitening properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Preliminary assessment of Salvadora persica whitening effects on extracted stained teeth. / Halib, Nadia; Nuairy, Nabilah Bt; Ramli, Haslinda; Ahmad, Ishak; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Salleh, Salihatun Md; Bakarudin, Saiful Bahari.

In: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, Vol. 7, No. 12, 01.12.2017, p. 121-125.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Halib, Nadia ; Nuairy, Nabilah Bt ; Ramli, Haslinda ; Ahmad, Ishak ; Othman, Norinsan Kamil ; Salleh, Salihatun Md ; Bakarudin, Saiful Bahari. / Preliminary assessment of Salvadora persica whitening effects on extracted stained teeth. In: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 12. pp. 121-125.
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