Predictors of SLE relapse in pregnancy and post-partum among multi-ethnic patients in Malaysia

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Abstract

Flare of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may occur during pregnancy and puerperium. We studied the prevalence and factors associated with SLE relapse during pregnancy and post-partum period in a multi-ethnic SLE cohort. Consecutive SLE patients who attended the outpatient clinic were reviewed for previous history of pregnancies in our institution. Patients who had a complete antenatal, delivery, and post-partum follow up were included. Their medical records were retrospectively analysed to assess the disease activity at pre-pregnancy/conception, during antenatal, and post-partum period. Presence of flare episodes during pregnancy and puerperium were recorded. The pregnancy outcomes recorded include live birth, foetal loss, prematurity and intra-uterine growth restrictions (IUGR). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with disease relapse and the pregnancy outcomes. A total of 120 patients with 196 pregnancies were included, with a live birth rate of 78.6%. Four (2.0%) were diagnosed to have SLE during pregnancy. The flare rate in pregnancy was 40.1% while post-partum 17.4%. Majority of the relapse in pregnancy occurred in haematological system (62.3%) followed by renal (53.2%), musculoskeletal (22.1%), and mucocutaneous (14.3%). In GEE analyses, active disease at conception was the independent predictor of SLE relapse during and after pregnancy, whereas older maternal age and Malay ethnicity were associated with higher flare during post-partum. HCQ use was significantly associated with reduced risk of flare in univariate analysis but it was no longer significant in the GEE analyses. Presence of disease flare in pregnancy was significantly associated with prematurity. In conclusion, pregnancy in SLE need to be planned during quiescent state as pre-pregnant active disease was associated with disease relapse in both during and after pregnancy. Malay patients had an increased risk of post-partum flare but further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between pregnancies in the different ancestral background.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0222343
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume14
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

lupus erythematosus
Malaysia
relapse
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
pregnancy
Recurrence
Pregnancy
postpartum period
premature birth
pregnancy outcome
Live Birth
Pregnancy Outcome
Postpartum Period
Logistics
History
Reproductive History
Birth Rate
Maternal Age
birth rate
Pregnancy Rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

@article{d9d688075fdc47cf859a4fe3ff3922af,
title = "Predictors of SLE relapse in pregnancy and post-partum among multi-ethnic patients in Malaysia",
abstract = "Flare of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may occur during pregnancy and puerperium. We studied the prevalence and factors associated with SLE relapse during pregnancy and post-partum period in a multi-ethnic SLE cohort. Consecutive SLE patients who attended the outpatient clinic were reviewed for previous history of pregnancies in our institution. Patients who had a complete antenatal, delivery, and post-partum follow up were included. Their medical records were retrospectively analysed to assess the disease activity at pre-pregnancy/conception, during antenatal, and post-partum period. Presence of flare episodes during pregnancy and puerperium were recorded. The pregnancy outcomes recorded include live birth, foetal loss, prematurity and intra-uterine growth restrictions (IUGR). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with disease relapse and the pregnancy outcomes. A total of 120 patients with 196 pregnancies were included, with a live birth rate of 78.6{\%}. Four (2.0{\%}) were diagnosed to have SLE during pregnancy. The flare rate in pregnancy was 40.1{\%} while post-partum 17.4{\%}. Majority of the relapse in pregnancy occurred in haematological system (62.3{\%}) followed by renal (53.2{\%}), musculoskeletal (22.1{\%}), and mucocutaneous (14.3{\%}). In GEE analyses, active disease at conception was the independent predictor of SLE relapse during and after pregnancy, whereas older maternal age and Malay ethnicity were associated with higher flare during post-partum. HCQ use was significantly associated with reduced risk of flare in univariate analysis but it was no longer significant in the GEE analyses. Presence of disease flare in pregnancy was significantly associated with prematurity. In conclusion, pregnancy in SLE need to be planned during quiescent state as pre-pregnant active disease was associated with disease relapse in both during and after pregnancy. Malay patients had an increased risk of post-partum flare but further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between pregnancies in the different ancestral background.",
author = "Shaharir, {Syahrul Sazliyana} and Said, {Mohd Shahrir Mohamed} and Rozita Mohd and Cader, {Rizna Abdul} and Ruslinda Mustafar and Rahman, {Rahana Abdul}",
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doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0222343",
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T1 - Predictors of SLE relapse in pregnancy and post-partum among multi-ethnic patients in Malaysia

AU - Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana

AU - Said, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed

AU - Mohd, Rozita

AU - Cader, Rizna Abdul

AU - Mustafar, Ruslinda

AU - Rahman, Rahana Abdul

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Flare of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may occur during pregnancy and puerperium. We studied the prevalence and factors associated with SLE relapse during pregnancy and post-partum period in a multi-ethnic SLE cohort. Consecutive SLE patients who attended the outpatient clinic were reviewed for previous history of pregnancies in our institution. Patients who had a complete antenatal, delivery, and post-partum follow up were included. Their medical records were retrospectively analysed to assess the disease activity at pre-pregnancy/conception, during antenatal, and post-partum period. Presence of flare episodes during pregnancy and puerperium were recorded. The pregnancy outcomes recorded include live birth, foetal loss, prematurity and intra-uterine growth restrictions (IUGR). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with disease relapse and the pregnancy outcomes. A total of 120 patients with 196 pregnancies were included, with a live birth rate of 78.6%. Four (2.0%) were diagnosed to have SLE during pregnancy. The flare rate in pregnancy was 40.1% while post-partum 17.4%. Majority of the relapse in pregnancy occurred in haematological system (62.3%) followed by renal (53.2%), musculoskeletal (22.1%), and mucocutaneous (14.3%). In GEE analyses, active disease at conception was the independent predictor of SLE relapse during and after pregnancy, whereas older maternal age and Malay ethnicity were associated with higher flare during post-partum. HCQ use was significantly associated with reduced risk of flare in univariate analysis but it was no longer significant in the GEE analyses. Presence of disease flare in pregnancy was significantly associated with prematurity. In conclusion, pregnancy in SLE need to be planned during quiescent state as pre-pregnant active disease was associated with disease relapse in both during and after pregnancy. Malay patients had an increased risk of post-partum flare but further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between pregnancies in the different ancestral background.

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