Predictors of postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers: A prospective cohort study

Farizal Fadzil, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Azmi Mohd. Tamil, Shuhaila Ahmad, Noor Shaheeran Abdul Hayi, Azah Abdul Samad, Ruhaini Ismail, Nor Izzah Ahmad Shauki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5 kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices. Results: Average age was 29.61 ± 4.71 years, majority (83.3%) were Malays, 58.8% (low education), 70.0% (employed), 65.2% (middle income family), 33.8% (primiparous) and 66.7% (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90 ± 5.18 kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12 ± 4.76 kg, 33.8% retaining ≥5 kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1% variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention. Conclusion: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.

Original languageEnglish
JournalObesity Research and Clinical Practice
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Postpartum Period
Cohort Studies
Mothers
Prospective Studies
Weights and Measures
Weight Gain
Energy Intake
Breast Feeding
Diet
Reproductive History
Parity
Life Style
Linear Models
Fats
Regression Analysis
Carbohydrates
Demography
Education
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • Malaysian mothers
  • Obesity
  • Postpartum weight retention
  • Prospective cohort
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Predictors of postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers : A prospective cohort study. / Fadzil, Farizal; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat; Mohd. Tamil, Azmi; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Abdul Hayi, Noor Shaheeran; Abdul Samad, Azah; Ismail, Ruhaini; Ahmad Shauki, Nor Izzah.

In: Obesity Research and Clinical Practice, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5 kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices. Results: Average age was 29.61 ± 4.71 years, majority (83.3{\%}) were Malays, 58.8{\%} (low education), 70.0{\%} (employed), 65.2{\%} (middle income family), 33.8{\%} (primiparous) and 66.7{\%} (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90 ± 5.18 kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12 ± 4.76 kg, 33.8{\%} retaining ≥5 kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1{\%} variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention. Conclusion: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.",
keywords = "Malaysian mothers, Obesity, Postpartum weight retention, Prospective cohort, Urban",
author = "Farizal Fadzil and Khadijah Shamsuddin and {Wan Puteh}, {Sharifa Ezat} and {Mohd. Tamil}, Azmi and Shuhaila Ahmad and {Abdul Hayi}, {Noor Shaheeran} and {Abdul Samad}, Azah and Ruhaini Ismail and {Ahmad Shauki}, {Nor Izzah}",
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AU - Fadzil, Farizal

AU - Shamsuddin, Khadijah

AU - Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

AU - Mohd. Tamil, Azmi

AU - Ahmad, Shuhaila

AU - Abdul Hayi, Noor Shaheeran

AU - Abdul Samad, Azah

AU - Ismail, Ruhaini

AU - Ahmad Shauki, Nor Izzah

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N2 - Background: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5 kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices. Results: Average age was 29.61 ± 4.71 years, majority (83.3%) were Malays, 58.8% (low education), 70.0% (employed), 65.2% (middle income family), 33.8% (primiparous) and 66.7% (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90 ± 5.18 kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12 ± 4.76 kg, 33.8% retaining ≥5 kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1% variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention. Conclusion: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.

AB - Background: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5 kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices. Results: Average age was 29.61 ± 4.71 years, majority (83.3%) were Malays, 58.8% (low education), 70.0% (employed), 65.2% (middle income family), 33.8% (primiparous) and 66.7% (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90 ± 5.18 kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12 ± 4.76 kg, 33.8% retaining ≥5 kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12 kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1% variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention. Conclusion: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.

KW - Malaysian mothers

KW - Obesity

KW - Postpartum weight retention

KW - Prospective cohort

KW - Urban

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