Predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Malaysian population with the metabolic syndrome

T. P. Yeow, A. S. Khir, A. A S Ismail, I. S. Ismail, M. Kamarul Imran, B. A K Khalid, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin, Y. N. Azwany, Norlaila Mustafa, A. Osman, S. H. Md Isa, W. M W Bebakar, W. M W Nazaimoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Aims Cardiovascular disease is the foremost cause of mortality in Malaysia but little is known about the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associations with other known cardiovascular risk markers. We undertook a population-based study to examine these. Methods For the study, 4341 subjects were selected using a multistage stratified sampling method. Subjects were interviewed for personal and past medical history. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the harmonized criteria. The associations between the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, microalbuminuria and HbA1c were examined. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 42.5%. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome are significantly more likely to have higher BMI (>25kg/m2), HbA1c [≥42mmol/mol (6.0%)], LDL (≥2.6mmol/l), elevated albumin:creatinine ratio (>2.5μg/mmol creatinine for men, 3.5μg/mmol creatinine for women) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3mg/l); odds ratio 5.48, 6.14, 1.44, 3.68 and 1.84, respectively, P<0.001. The presence of an elevated albumin:creatinine ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are strong predictors for the presence of a higher number of positive criteria of the metabolic syndrome. HbA1c >48mmol/mol (6.5%) is associated with increased relative risk of elevated albumin:creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and LDL (relative risk 3.10, 2.46 and 1.65 respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions We confirmed the high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Our study revealed a strong relationship between risk markers of elevated BMI, HbA1c, LDL, albumin:creatinine ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with the presence of the metabolic syndrome, putting them at a statistically high risk for cardiovascular mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1378-1384
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Volume29
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

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Myocardial Ischemia
Creatinine
C-Reactive Protein
Population
Albumins
Malaysia
Metabolic Syndrome X
Mortality
Cardiovascular Diseases
Odds Ratio
oxidized low density lipoprotein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Yeow, T. P., Khir, A. S., Ismail, A. A. S., Ismail, I. S., Kamarul Imran, M., Khalid, B. A. K., ... Nazaimoon, W. M. W. (2012). Predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Malaysian population with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetic Medicine, 29(11), 1378-1384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03741.x

Predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Malaysian population with the metabolic syndrome. / Yeow, T. P.; Khir, A. S.; Ismail, A. A S; Ismail, I. S.; Kamarul Imran, M.; Khalid, B. A K; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Azwany, Y. N.; Mustafa, Norlaila; Osman, A.; Md Isa, S. H.; Bebakar, W. M W; Nazaimoon, W. M W.

In: Diabetic Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 11, 11.2012, p. 1378-1384.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yeow, TP, Khir, AS, Ismail, AAS, Ismail, IS, Kamarul Imran, M, Khalid, BAK, Kamaruddin, NA, Azwany, YN, Mustafa, N, Osman, A, Md Isa, SH, Bebakar, WMW & Nazaimoon, WMW 2012, 'Predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Malaysian population with the metabolic syndrome', Diabetic Medicine, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1378-1384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03741.x
Yeow TP, Khir AS, Ismail AAS, Ismail IS, Kamarul Imran M, Khalid BAK et al. Predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Malaysian population with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetic Medicine. 2012 Nov;29(11):1378-1384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03741.x
Yeow, T. P. ; Khir, A. S. ; Ismail, A. A S ; Ismail, I. S. ; Kamarul Imran, M. ; Khalid, B. A K ; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi ; Azwany, Y. N. ; Mustafa, Norlaila ; Osman, A. ; Md Isa, S. H. ; Bebakar, W. M W ; Nazaimoon, W. M W. / Predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Malaysian population with the metabolic syndrome. In: Diabetic Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 29, No. 11. pp. 1378-1384.
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abstract = "Aims Cardiovascular disease is the foremost cause of mortality in Malaysia but little is known about the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associations with other known cardiovascular risk markers. We undertook a population-based study to examine these. Methods For the study, 4341 subjects were selected using a multistage stratified sampling method. Subjects were interviewed for personal and past medical history. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the harmonized criteria. The associations between the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, microalbuminuria and HbA1c were examined. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 42.5{\%}. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome are significantly more likely to have higher BMI (>25kg/m2), HbA1c [≥42mmol/mol (6.0{\%})], LDL (≥2.6mmol/l), elevated albumin:creatinine ratio (>2.5μg/mmol creatinine for men, 3.5μg/mmol creatinine for women) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3mg/l); odds ratio 5.48, 6.14, 1.44, 3.68 and 1.84, respectively, P<0.001. The presence of an elevated albumin:creatinine ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are strong predictors for the presence of a higher number of positive criteria of the metabolic syndrome. HbA1c >48mmol/mol (6.5{\%}) is associated with increased relative risk of elevated albumin:creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and LDL (relative risk 3.10, 2.46 and 1.65 respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions We confirmed the high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Our study revealed a strong relationship between risk markers of elevated BMI, HbA1c, LDL, albumin:creatinine ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with the presence of the metabolic syndrome, putting them at a statistically high risk for cardiovascular mortality.",
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AU - Ismail, A. A S

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AU - Kamarul Imran, M.

AU - Khalid, B. A K

AU - Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

AU - Azwany, Y. N.

AU - Mustafa, Norlaila

AU - Osman, A.

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AU - Bebakar, W. M W

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