Pollution levels of thiobencarb, propanil, and pretilachlor in rice fields of the muda irrigation scheme, Kedah, Malaysia

Prayitno Sapari, Ismail Sahid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential risk of pretilachlor, thiobencarb, and propanil pollutants in the water system of the rice fields of the Muda area. The study included two areas that used different irrigation systems namely nonrecycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Regular water sampling was carried out at the drainage canals during the weeding period from September to October 2006 in the main season of 2006/2007 and April-May 2007 in off season of 2007. The herbicides were extracted by the solid-phase extraction method and identified using a GC-ECD. Results showed that the procedure for identification of the three herbicides was acceptable based on the recovery test values, which ranged from 84.1% to 96.9%. A wide distribution pattern where more than 79% of the water samples contained the herbicide pollutants was observed at both the areas where N-RCL and RCL water was supplied for the two seasons. During September to October 2006, high weedicide residue concentration was observed at the N-RCL area and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. In the case of the area with RCL water, the weedicide residue ranged from 1 to 5 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. The highest residue level reached was 25-50, 50-100, and 100-200 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. During April to May 2007, high residue concentration frequently occurred at the area supplied with N-RCL irrigation water and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00, 10 to 25, and 25 to 50 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. The highest residue level reached was 25-50 μg/L for pretilachlor and 100-200 μg/L for propanil and thiobencarb. There was an accelerated increase in the concentration of the herbicide residues, with the maximum levels reached at the early period of weedicide application, followed by a sharp decrease after the rice fields were completely covered with the rice crop. During the main season of 2006/2007, the concentration of propanil residue gradually rose, although that of the other herbicides declined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6347-6356
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume184
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012

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paddy field
Irrigation
Herbicides
Pollution
irrigation
pollution
herbicide
Water
water
pollutant
Canals
irrigation system
extraction method
Drainage
Crops
canal
rice
drainage
Sampling
Recovery

Keywords

  • Pollution
  • Pretilachlor
  • Propanil
  • Rice fields
  • Thiobencarb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Pollution

Cite this

Pollution levels of thiobencarb, propanil, and pretilachlor in rice fields of the muda irrigation scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. / Sapari, Prayitno; Sahid, Ismail.

In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 184, No. 10, 10.2012, p. 6347-6356.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential risk of pretilachlor, thiobencarb, and propanil pollutants in the water system of the rice fields of the Muda area. The study included two areas that used different irrigation systems namely nonrecycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Regular water sampling was carried out at the drainage canals during the weeding period from September to October 2006 in the main season of 2006/2007 and April-May 2007 in off season of 2007. The herbicides were extracted by the solid-phase extraction method and identified using a GC-ECD. Results showed that the procedure for identification of the three herbicides was acceptable based on the recovery test values, which ranged from 84.1{\%} to 96.9{\%}. A wide distribution pattern where more than 79{\%} of the water samples contained the herbicide pollutants was observed at both the areas where N-RCL and RCL water was supplied for the two seasons. During September to October 2006, high weedicide residue concentration was observed at the N-RCL area and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. In the case of the area with RCL water, the weedicide residue ranged from 1 to 5 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. The highest residue level reached was 25-50, 50-100, and 100-200 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. During April to May 2007, high residue concentration frequently occurred at the area supplied with N-RCL irrigation water and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00, 10 to 25, and 25 to 50 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. The highest residue level reached was 25-50 μg/L for pretilachlor and 100-200 μg/L for propanil and thiobencarb. There was an accelerated increase in the concentration of the herbicide residues, with the maximum levels reached at the early period of weedicide application, followed by a sharp decrease after the rice fields were completely covered with the rice crop. During the main season of 2006/2007, the concentration of propanil residue gradually rose, although that of the other herbicides declined.",
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