Physicochemical characteristics of Malaysian crude palm kernel oil

Murad Bahadi, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Yusoff, Jumat Salimon, Majd Ahmed Jumaah, Darfizzi Derawi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA%) of 3.7±0.1%, acid value of 10.4±0.1 mg/g, iodine value of 20.8±0.6 mg/g, hydroxyl value of 45.06±0.3 mg/g, refractive index at 28°C of g/ml, 1.455, moisture content of 0.5±0.1%, viscosity at 28°C of 40 cP, Lovibond colour (R/Y) at 28°C of 0.5R–20Y. The gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector was used to determine the fatty acid composition in CPKO. The results showed that the dominant fatty acids are lauric acid (44.5±0.7%), oleic acid (18.0±0.5%), myristic acid (16.9±0.1%) and palmitic acid (9.4±0.2%). The major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of CPKO estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography were LaLaLa (32.91%), LaLaM (23.59), LaOLa (9.93%) and CLaLa (9.10%). The differential scanning calorimetry showed that the crystallisation of CPKO displayed two major exothermic regions of CPKO with the saturated TAG at 6.11°C and the unsaturated TAG at -2.10°C. The melting curve of CPKO displayed two endothermic peak regions at 9.13°C and 24.08°C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-27
Number of pages11
JournalMalaysian Journal of Chemistry
Volume21
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Palm oil
Fatty acids
Triglycerides
lauric acid
Acids
Fatty Acids
Palmitic acid
Palmitic Acid
Oleic acid
Myristic Acid
High performance liquid chromatography
Oleic Acid
Crystallization
Iodine
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Gas chromatography
Hydroxyl Radical
Ionization
palm oil
Differential scanning calorimetry

Keywords

  • Crude palm kernel oil
  • Fatty acid composition
  • Physicochemical characteristic
  • Thermal behaviour
  • Triacylglycerol profile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Physicochemical characteristics of Malaysian crude palm kernel oil. / Bahadi, Murad; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Firdaus; Salimon, Jumat; Jumaah, Majd Ahmed; Derawi, Darfizzi.

In: Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 2, 01.01.2019, p. 17-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bahadi, Murad ; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Firdaus ; Salimon, Jumat ; Jumaah, Majd Ahmed ; Derawi, Darfizzi. / Physicochemical characteristics of Malaysian crude palm kernel oil. In: Malaysian Journal of Chemistry. 2019 ; Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 17-27.
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abstract = "This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA{\%}) of 3.7±0.1{\%}, acid value of 10.4±0.1 mg/g, iodine value of 20.8±0.6 mg/g, hydroxyl value of 45.06±0.3 mg/g, refractive index at 28°C of g/ml, 1.455, moisture content of 0.5±0.1{\%}, viscosity at 28°C of 40 cP, Lovibond colour (R/Y) at 28°C of 0.5R–20Y. The gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector was used to determine the fatty acid composition in CPKO. The results showed that the dominant fatty acids are lauric acid (44.5±0.7{\%}), oleic acid (18.0±0.5{\%}), myristic acid (16.9±0.1{\%}) and palmitic acid (9.4±0.2{\%}). The major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of CPKO estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography were LaLaLa (32.91{\%}), LaLaM (23.59), LaOLa (9.93{\%}) and CLaLa (9.10{\%}). The differential scanning calorimetry showed that the crystallisation of CPKO displayed two major exothermic regions of CPKO with the saturated TAG at 6.11°C and the unsaturated TAG at -2.10°C. The melting curve of CPKO displayed two endothermic peak regions at 9.13°C and 24.08°C.",
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