Physico-mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite

Zuhaili Zakaria, Sarani Zakaria, Rasidi Roslan, Chin Hua Chia, Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Sinyee Gan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres was used to synthesize biophenolic resin (BPR) at a different formaldehyde/liquefied empty fruit bunches (F/LEFB) molar ratio which is 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. The higher molar ratio of F/LEFB used has resulted in an increased of viscosity and solid content of BPR resin. The first decomposition of BPR resin occured around 86 to 130°C due to the evaporation of low molecular weight substance which were water, free phenol and formaldehyde. Glass fibre reinforced biophenolic composite (BPC) and glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite (BPEC) was successfully fabricated using BPR resin. The impact strength and flexural strain of BPEC were higher than that of BPC. The impact strength of BPEC 1.5 was the highest at 47.71 kJm-2. However, the flexural strength of BPEC was lower compared with BPC, which the highest flexural strength was obtained by BPC 1.0 at 65.18 MPa. The cross-sectional image from scanning electron microscope (SEM) of BPEC and BPC confirmed the presence of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) improved the compatibility between glass fibre and BPR resin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2573-2580
Number of pages8
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume47
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

Elastomers
Glass fibers
Resins
Mechanical properties
Composite materials
Fruits
Formaldehyde
Impact strength
Bending strength
Palm oil
Phenols
Rubber
Evaporation
Electron microscopes
Molecular weight
Viscosity
Decomposition
Scanning
Fibers

Keywords

  • Epoxidized natural rubber
  • Interlocking
  • Liquefaction
  • Oil palm empty fruit bunches
  • Prepreg

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Physico-mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite. / Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah; Amran, Umar Adli; Gan, Sinyee.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 47, No. 10, 01.10.2018, p. 2573-2580.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zakaria, Zuhaili ; Zakaria, Sarani ; Roslan, Rasidi ; Chia, Chin Hua ; Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah ; Amran, Umar Adli ; Gan, Sinyee. / Physico-mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite. In: Sains Malaysiana. 2018 ; Vol. 47, No. 10. pp. 2573-2580.
@article{1e01df5d539f44cea8217a01e4c9b25d,
title = "Physico-mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite",
abstract = "In this study oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres was used to synthesize biophenolic resin (BPR) at a different formaldehyde/liquefied empty fruit bunches (F/LEFB) molar ratio which is 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. The higher molar ratio of F/LEFB used has resulted in an increased of viscosity and solid content of BPR resin. The first decomposition of BPR resin occured around 86 to 130°C due to the evaporation of low molecular weight substance which were water, free phenol and formaldehyde. Glass fibre reinforced biophenolic composite (BPC) and glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite (BPEC) was successfully fabricated using BPR resin. The impact strength and flexural strain of BPEC were higher than that of BPC. The impact strength of BPEC 1.5 was the highest at 47.71 kJm-2. However, the flexural strength of BPEC was lower compared with BPC, which the highest flexural strength was obtained by BPC 1.0 at 65.18 MPa. The cross-sectional image from scanning electron microscope (SEM) of BPEC and BPC confirmed the presence of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) improved the compatibility between glass fibre and BPR resin.",
keywords = "Epoxidized natural rubber, Interlocking, Liquefaction, Oil palm empty fruit bunches, Prepreg",
author = "Zuhaili Zakaria and Sarani Zakaria and Rasidi Roslan and Chia, {Chin Hua} and {Syed Jaafar}, {Sharifah Nabihah} and Amran, {Umar Adli} and Sinyee Gan",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.17576/jsm-2018-4710-34",
language = "English",
volume = "47",
pages = "2573--2580",
journal = "Sains Malaysiana",
issn = "0126-6039",
publisher = "Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physico-mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite

AU - Zakaria, Zuhaili

AU - Zakaria, Sarani

AU - Roslan, Rasidi

AU - Chia, Chin Hua

AU - Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah

AU - Amran, Umar Adli

AU - Gan, Sinyee

PY - 2018/10/1

Y1 - 2018/10/1

N2 - In this study oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres was used to synthesize biophenolic resin (BPR) at a different formaldehyde/liquefied empty fruit bunches (F/LEFB) molar ratio which is 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. The higher molar ratio of F/LEFB used has resulted in an increased of viscosity and solid content of BPR resin. The first decomposition of BPR resin occured around 86 to 130°C due to the evaporation of low molecular weight substance which were water, free phenol and formaldehyde. Glass fibre reinforced biophenolic composite (BPC) and glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite (BPEC) was successfully fabricated using BPR resin. The impact strength and flexural strain of BPEC were higher than that of BPC. The impact strength of BPEC 1.5 was the highest at 47.71 kJm-2. However, the flexural strength of BPEC was lower compared with BPC, which the highest flexural strength was obtained by BPC 1.0 at 65.18 MPa. The cross-sectional image from scanning electron microscope (SEM) of BPEC and BPC confirmed the presence of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) improved the compatibility between glass fibre and BPR resin.

AB - In this study oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres was used to synthesize biophenolic resin (BPR) at a different formaldehyde/liquefied empty fruit bunches (F/LEFB) molar ratio which is 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. The higher molar ratio of F/LEFB used has resulted in an increased of viscosity and solid content of BPR resin. The first decomposition of BPR resin occured around 86 to 130°C due to the evaporation of low molecular weight substance which were water, free phenol and formaldehyde. Glass fibre reinforced biophenolic composite (BPC) and glass fibre reinforced biophenolic elastomer composite (BPEC) was successfully fabricated using BPR resin. The impact strength and flexural strain of BPEC were higher than that of BPC. The impact strength of BPEC 1.5 was the highest at 47.71 kJm-2. However, the flexural strength of BPEC was lower compared with BPC, which the highest flexural strength was obtained by BPC 1.0 at 65.18 MPa. The cross-sectional image from scanning electron microscope (SEM) of BPEC and BPC confirmed the presence of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) improved the compatibility between glass fibre and BPR resin.

KW - Epoxidized natural rubber

KW - Interlocking

KW - Liquefaction

KW - Oil palm empty fruit bunches

KW - Prepreg

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85057502825&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85057502825&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.17576/jsm-2018-4710-34

DO - 10.17576/jsm-2018-4710-34

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85057502825

VL - 47

SP - 2573

EP - 2580

JO - Sains Malaysiana

JF - Sains Malaysiana

SN - 0126-6039

IS - 10

ER -