Phylogeny and phylogeography of Old World fruit bats in the Cynopterus brachyotis complex

Polly Campbell, Christopher J. Schneider, Adura M. Adnan, Zubaid Akbar Mukhtar Ahmad, Thomas H. Kunz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Taxonomic relationships within the Old World fruit bat genus, Cynopterus, have been equivocal for the better part of a century. While nomenclature has been revised multiple times on the basis of phenotypic characters, evolutionary relationships among taxa representing the entire geographic range of the genus have not been determined. We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships among the three most broadly distributed members of the genus: C. brachyotis, C. horsfieldi, and C. sphinx, and to assess whether C. brachyotis represents a single widespread species, or a complex of distinct lineages. Results clearly indicate that C. brachyotis is a complex of lineages. C. sphinx and C. horsfieldi haplotypes formed monophyletic groups nested within the C. brachyotis species complex. We identified six divergent mitochondrial lineages that are currently referred to C. brachyotis. Lineages from India, Myanmar, Sulawesi, and the Philippines are geographically well-defined, while in Malaysia two lineages, designated Sunda and Forest, are broadly sympatric and may be ecologically distinct. Demographic analyses of the Sunda and Forest lineages suggest strikingly different population histories, including a recent and rapid range expansion in the Sunda lineage, possibly associated with changes in sea levels during the Pleistocene. The resolution of the taxonomic issues raised in this study awaits combined analysis of morphometric characters and molecular data. However, since both the Indian and Malaysian Forest C. brachyotis lineages are apparently ecologically restricted to increasingly fragmented forest habitat, we suggest that reevaluation of the conservation status of populations in these regions should be an immediate goal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)764-781
Number of pages18
JournalMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004

Fingerprint

Cynopterus
Phylogeography
Pteropodidae
phylogeography
Phylogeny
bat
Sphinx
Fruit
phylogeny
fruit
Myanmar
forest habitats
Philippines
habitat fragmentation
Malaysia
sea level
Indonesia
range expansion
haplotypes
conservation status

Keywords

  • Cynopterus
  • Demographic expansion
  • Mismatch distribution
  • Mitochondrial DNA
  • Phylogeography
  • Pleistocene
  • Species complex
  • Sunda shelf

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Phylogeny and phylogeography of Old World fruit bats in the Cynopterus brachyotis complex. / Campbell, Polly; Schneider, Christopher J.; Adnan, Adura M.; Mukhtar Ahmad, Zubaid Akbar; Kunz, Thomas H.

In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 33, No. 3, 12.2004, p. 764-781.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Campbell, Polly ; Schneider, Christopher J. ; Adnan, Adura M. ; Mukhtar Ahmad, Zubaid Akbar ; Kunz, Thomas H. / Phylogeny and phylogeography of Old World fruit bats in the Cynopterus brachyotis complex. In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2004 ; Vol. 33, No. 3. pp. 764-781.
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