Phyllanthin from Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice

Menaga Ilangkovan, Ibrahim Jantan, Bukhari Syed Nasir Abbas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background Phyllanthin found in many Phyllanthus species has various biochemical and pharmacological properties especially on its hepatoprotective effects. However, its effect on the immune system has not been well documented. Purpose In the present study, phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for its immunosuppressive effects on various cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. Methods Male mice were treated daily at 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg of phyllanthin for 14 days by oral gavage. The effects of phyllanthin on cellular immune responses in treated /non treated mice were determined by measuring CD 11b/CD 18 integrin expression, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), T and B cells proliferation, lymphocyte phenotyping, serum cytokines production by activated T-cells and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). Its effects on humoral immune responses were evaluated by determining the serum levels of lysozyme and ceruloplasmin, and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM). Results Phyllanthin dose-dependently inhibited CD11b/CD18 adhesion, the engulfment of E. coli by peritoneal macrophages molecules, NO and MPO release in treated mice. Phyllanthin caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of T and B lymphocytes proliferation and down-regulation of the Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. Phyllanthin at 100 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the percentage expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and the inhibition was comparable to that of cyclosporin A at 50 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, phyllanthin also dose-dependently exhibited strong inhibition on the sheep red blood cell (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in DTH. Significant inhibition of serum levels of ceruloplasmin and lysozyme were observed in mice fed with higher doses (40 and 100 mg/kg) of phyllanthin. Anti-sRBC immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG) antibody titer was down-regulated in immunized and phyllanthin-treated mice in a dose-dependent manner with maximum inhibition being observed at 100 mg/kg. Conclusion The strong inhibitory effects of phyllanthin on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest that phyllanthin may be a good candidate for development into an effective immunosuppressive agent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1441-1450
Number of pages10
JournalPhytomedicine
Volume23
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2016

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Phyllanthus
Humoral Immunity
Cellular Immunity
Ceruloplasmin
Delayed Hypersensitivity
Immunosuppressive Agents
Muramidase
T-Lymphocytes
Peroxidase
Immunoglobulin M
phyllanthin
Immunoglobulins
Sheep
Nitric Oxide
B-Lymphocytes
Immunoglobulin G
Erythrocytes
Serum
Cytokines
Immunophenotyping

Keywords

  • Cellular immunity
  • Delayed type hypersensitivity
  • Humoral immunity
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Immunosuppressant
  • Phyllanthin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Phyllanthin from Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. / Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Syed Nasir Abbas, Bukhari.

In: Phytomedicine, Vol. 23, No. 12, 15.11.2016, p. 1441-1450.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ilangkovan, Menaga ; Jantan, Ibrahim ; Syed Nasir Abbas, Bukhari. / Phyllanthin from Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. In: Phytomedicine. 2016 ; Vol. 23, No. 12. pp. 1441-1450.
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AU - Jantan, Ibrahim

AU - Syed Nasir Abbas, Bukhari

PY - 2016/11/15

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N2 - Background Phyllanthin found in many Phyllanthus species has various biochemical and pharmacological properties especially on its hepatoprotective effects. However, its effect on the immune system has not been well documented. Purpose In the present study, phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for its immunosuppressive effects on various cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. Methods Male mice were treated daily at 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg of phyllanthin for 14 days by oral gavage. The effects of phyllanthin on cellular immune responses in treated /non treated mice were determined by measuring CD 11b/CD 18 integrin expression, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), T and B cells proliferation, lymphocyte phenotyping, serum cytokines production by activated T-cells and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). Its effects on humoral immune responses were evaluated by determining the serum levels of lysozyme and ceruloplasmin, and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM). Results Phyllanthin dose-dependently inhibited CD11b/CD18 adhesion, the engulfment of E. coli by peritoneal macrophages molecules, NO and MPO release in treated mice. Phyllanthin caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of T and B lymphocytes proliferation and down-regulation of the Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. Phyllanthin at 100 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the percentage expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and the inhibition was comparable to that of cyclosporin A at 50 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, phyllanthin also dose-dependently exhibited strong inhibition on the sheep red blood cell (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in DTH. Significant inhibition of serum levels of ceruloplasmin and lysozyme were observed in mice fed with higher doses (40 and 100 mg/kg) of phyllanthin. Anti-sRBC immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG) antibody titer was down-regulated in immunized and phyllanthin-treated mice in a dose-dependent manner with maximum inhibition being observed at 100 mg/kg. Conclusion The strong inhibitory effects of phyllanthin on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest that phyllanthin may be a good candidate for development into an effective immunosuppressive agent.

AB - Background Phyllanthin found in many Phyllanthus species has various biochemical and pharmacological properties especially on its hepatoprotective effects. However, its effect on the immune system has not been well documented. Purpose In the present study, phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for its immunosuppressive effects on various cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. Methods Male mice were treated daily at 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg of phyllanthin for 14 days by oral gavage. The effects of phyllanthin on cellular immune responses in treated /non treated mice were determined by measuring CD 11b/CD 18 integrin expression, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), T and B cells proliferation, lymphocyte phenotyping, serum cytokines production by activated T-cells and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). Its effects on humoral immune responses were evaluated by determining the serum levels of lysozyme and ceruloplasmin, and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM). Results Phyllanthin dose-dependently inhibited CD11b/CD18 adhesion, the engulfment of E. coli by peritoneal macrophages molecules, NO and MPO release in treated mice. Phyllanthin caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of T and B lymphocytes proliferation and down-regulation of the Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. Phyllanthin at 100 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the percentage expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and the inhibition was comparable to that of cyclosporin A at 50 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, phyllanthin also dose-dependently exhibited strong inhibition on the sheep red blood cell (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in DTH. Significant inhibition of serum levels of ceruloplasmin and lysozyme were observed in mice fed with higher doses (40 and 100 mg/kg) of phyllanthin. Anti-sRBC immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG) antibody titer was down-regulated in immunized and phyllanthin-treated mice in a dose-dependent manner with maximum inhibition being observed at 100 mg/kg. Conclusion The strong inhibitory effects of phyllanthin on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest that phyllanthin may be a good candidate for development into an effective immunosuppressive agent.

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KW - Delayed type hypersensitivity

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