Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation

Farah Aida Dahalan, Hasidah Mohd. Sidek, Mogana Das Murtey, Mohammed Noor Embi, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Lim Fei Tieng, Nurul Aiezzah Zakaria, Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz

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Abstract

Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2) is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form) stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites' developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1645097
JournalBioMed Research International
Volume2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Plasmodium falciparum
Antimalarials
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Trophozoites
Signal transduction
Schizonts
Joining
Immunoelectron Microscopy
Microscopic examination
Phosphotransferases
Chemical activation
Signal Transduction
Parasites
Antibodies
Erythrocytes
Enzymes
Proteins
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

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Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation. / Dahalan, Farah Aida; Mohd. Sidek, Hasidah; Murtey, Mogana Das; Embi, Mohammed Noor; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Fei Tieng, Lim; Zakaria, Nurul Aiezzah; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin.

In: BioMed Research International, Vol. 2016, 1645097, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dahalan, Farah Aida ; Mohd. Sidek, Hasidah ; Murtey, Mogana Das ; Embi, Mohammed Noor ; Ibrahim, Jamaiah ; Fei Tieng, Lim ; Zakaria, Nurul Aiezzah ; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin. / Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation. In: BioMed Research International. 2016 ; Vol. 2016.
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