Phenylpropanoid sex pheromone component in hemolymph of male Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Wei Wei Hiap, Wee Suk Ling, Keng Hong Tan, Alvin Kah Wei Hee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Males of the Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to, and feed on methyl eugenol (ME) that exists as a plant secondary compound in over 480 plant species worldwide. Upon feeding on this highly potent attractant, the males convert ME into a phenylpropanoid, (E)-coniferyl alcohol (ECF), that is stored in the rectal gland prior to its release as a sex pheromone component during calling and courtship. Here, using a series of chemical and behavioural assays, we provide evidence for the presence of ECF in the hemolymph and suggest the latter’s involvement in transport of ECF to the male rectal gland following consumption of ME. The greatest concentration of ECF was detected in the hemolymph at 3 h after feeding on ME and subsequently decreased, whereas accumulation of ECF in the rectal gland reached a maximum at 2 days post-feeding. Using male flies as biodetectors, fractions of 1.5–9.2 kDa from fractionated hemolymph of ME-fed males were found to be attractive and contained ECF as sex pheromone. In addition, the significant increase in the total concentration of protein in hemolymph from ME-fed males compared with that of ME-deprived males suggests a direct protein carrier involvement in hemolymph transport of the sex pheromone in B. carambolae. All these results are further discussed in comparison with previous results obtained from its sibling species, the Oriental fruit fly—B. dorsalis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChemoecology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

methyleugenol
Bactrocera carambolae
Tephritidae
Averrhoa carambola
methyl eugenol
Sex Attractants
Hemolymph
sex pheromone
coniferyl alcohol
phenylpropanoids
sex pheromones
fruit flies
Fruits
Diptera
hemolymph
Fruit
fruit
alcohol
Salt Gland
Courtship

Keywords

  • (E)-coniferyl alcohol
  • Bactrocera carambolae
  • Hemolymph
  • Methyl eugenol
  • Rectal gland
  • Sex pheromone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Phenylpropanoid sex pheromone component in hemolymph of male Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera : Tephritidae). / Hiap, Wei Wei; Suk Ling, Wee; Tan, Keng Hong; Hee, Alvin Kah Wei.

In: Chemoecology, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Males of the Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to, and feed on methyl eugenol (ME) that exists as a plant secondary compound in over 480 plant species worldwide. Upon feeding on this highly potent attractant, the males convert ME into a phenylpropanoid, (E)-coniferyl alcohol (ECF), that is stored in the rectal gland prior to its release as a sex pheromone component during calling and courtship. Here, using a series of chemical and behavioural assays, we provide evidence for the presence of ECF in the hemolymph and suggest the latter’s involvement in transport of ECF to the male rectal gland following consumption of ME. The greatest concentration of ECF was detected in the hemolymph at 3 h after feeding on ME and subsequently decreased, whereas accumulation of ECF in the rectal gland reached a maximum at 2 days post-feeding. Using male flies as biodetectors, fractions of 1.5–9.2 kDa from fractionated hemolymph of ME-fed males were found to be attractive and contained ECF as sex pheromone. In addition, the significant increase in the total concentration of protein in hemolymph from ME-fed males compared with that of ME-deprived males suggests a direct protein carrier involvement in hemolymph transport of the sex pheromone in B. carambolae. All these results are further discussed in comparison with previous results obtained from its sibling species, the Oriental fruit fly—B. dorsalis.",
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