Pharmacogenomics DNA biomarkers in colorectal cancer: Current update

Nurul Syakima Ab Mutalib, Najwa F. Md Yusof, Shafina Nadiawati Abdul, A. Rahman A. Jamal

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains as one of the most common cause of worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Improvements in surgical modalities and adjuvant chemotherapy have increased the cure rates in early stage disease, but a significant portion of the patients will develop recurrence or advanced disease. The efficacy of chemotherapy of recurrence and advanced CRC has improved significantly over the last decade. Previously, the historical drug 5-fluorouracil was used as single chemotherapeutic agent. Now with the addition of other drugs such as capecitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib, the median survival of patients with advanced CRC has significantly improved from less than a year to the current standard of almost 2 years. However, the side effects of systemic therapy such as toxicity may cause fatal complications and have a major consequences on the patients' quality of life. Hence, there is an urgent need for key biomarkers which will enable the selection of optimal drug singly or in combination for an individual patient. The application of personalized therapy based on DNA testing could aid the clinicians in providing the most effective chemotherapy agents and dose modifications for each patient. Yet, some of the current findings are controversial and the evidences are conflicting. This review aims at summarizing the current state of knowledge about germline pharmacogenomics DNA variants that are currently used to guide therapeutic decisions and variants that have the potential to be clinically useful in the future. In addition, current updates on germline variants conferring treatment sensitivity, drug resistance to existing chemotherapy agents and variants affecting prognosis and survival will also be emphasized. Different alteration in the same gene might confer resistance or enhanced sensitivity; and while most of other published reviews generally stated only the gene name and codon location, we will specifically discuss the exact variants to offer more accurate information in this mini review.

Original languageEnglish
Article number736
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Volume8
Issue numberOCT
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2017

Fingerprint

Pharmacogenetics
Colorectal Neoplasms
Biomarkers
DNA
irinotecan
oxaliplatin
Drug Therapy
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Recurrence
Survival
Therapeutics
Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Drug Resistance
Codon
Fluorouracil
Genes
Names
Quality of Life
Morbidity
Mortality

Keywords

  • Actionable target
  • Colorectal cancer
  • DNA sequencing
  • Gene variants
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Precision medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Pharmacogenomics DNA biomarkers in colorectal cancer : Current update. / Ab Mutalib, Nurul Syakima; Md Yusof, Najwa F.; Abdul, Shafina Nadiawati; A. Jamal, A. Rahman.

In: Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 8, No. OCT, 736, 12.10.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

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abstract = "Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains as one of the most common cause of worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Improvements in surgical modalities and adjuvant chemotherapy have increased the cure rates in early stage disease, but a significant portion of the patients will develop recurrence or advanced disease. The efficacy of chemotherapy of recurrence and advanced CRC has improved significantly over the last decade. Previously, the historical drug 5-fluorouracil was used as single chemotherapeutic agent. Now with the addition of other drugs such as capecitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib, the median survival of patients with advanced CRC has significantly improved from less than a year to the current standard of almost 2 years. However, the side effects of systemic therapy such as toxicity may cause fatal complications and have a major consequences on the patients' quality of life. Hence, there is an urgent need for key biomarkers which will enable the selection of optimal drug singly or in combination for an individual patient. The application of personalized therapy based on DNA testing could aid the clinicians in providing the most effective chemotherapy agents and dose modifications for each patient. Yet, some of the current findings are controversial and the evidences are conflicting. This review aims at summarizing the current state of knowledge about germline pharmacogenomics DNA variants that are currently used to guide therapeutic decisions and variants that have the potential to be clinically useful in the future. In addition, current updates on germline variants conferring treatment sensitivity, drug resistance to existing chemotherapy agents and variants affecting prognosis and survival will also be emphasized. Different alteration in the same gene might confer resistance or enhanced sensitivity; and while most of other published reviews generally stated only the gene name and codon location, we will specifically discuss the exact variants to offer more accurate information in this mini review.",
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AB - Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains as one of the most common cause of worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Improvements in surgical modalities and adjuvant chemotherapy have increased the cure rates in early stage disease, but a significant portion of the patients will develop recurrence or advanced disease. The efficacy of chemotherapy of recurrence and advanced CRC has improved significantly over the last decade. Previously, the historical drug 5-fluorouracil was used as single chemotherapeutic agent. Now with the addition of other drugs such as capecitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib, the median survival of patients with advanced CRC has significantly improved from less than a year to the current standard of almost 2 years. However, the side effects of systemic therapy such as toxicity may cause fatal complications and have a major consequences on the patients' quality of life. Hence, there is an urgent need for key biomarkers which will enable the selection of optimal drug singly or in combination for an individual patient. The application of personalized therapy based on DNA testing could aid the clinicians in providing the most effective chemotherapy agents and dose modifications for each patient. Yet, some of the current findings are controversial and the evidences are conflicting. This review aims at summarizing the current state of knowledge about germline pharmacogenomics DNA variants that are currently used to guide therapeutic decisions and variants that have the potential to be clinically useful in the future. In addition, current updates on germline variants conferring treatment sensitivity, drug resistance to existing chemotherapy agents and variants affecting prognosis and survival will also be emphasized. Different alteration in the same gene might confer resistance or enhanced sensitivity; and while most of other published reviews generally stated only the gene name and codon location, we will specifically discuss the exact variants to offer more accurate information in this mini review.

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