Pesticide risk assessment

A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers

Mohd Rafee B Baharuddin, Ismail Sahid, Mohamad Azhar B Mohd Noor, Norela Sulaiman, Fadzil Othman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high.Withmotorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged fromlow to moderate.Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)600-607
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Volume46
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011

Fingerprint

inhalation exposure
dermal exposure
Inhalation Exposure
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
Paraquat
paraquat
Pesticides
Risk assessment
2,4-D
paddies
risk assessment
pesticides
farmers
Skin
Spraying
protective clothing
Protective Clothing
spraying
Protective clothing
spraying equipment

Keywords

  • 2,4-D
  • Dermal exposure
  • Health effects
  • Inhalation exposure
  • Liver enzymes
  • Paddy farmer
  • Paraquat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Pollution

Cite this

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abstract = "A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high.Withmotorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged fromlow to moderate.Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.",
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