Hydroxypropylation of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

Translated title of the contribution: Penghidroksilpropilan serabut tandan kosong kelapa sawit menggunakan polietilena glikol (PEG)

M. Z. Noreen Farzuhana, Sarani Zakaria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxypropylation method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (Ea), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increament of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm-1, but after hydroxypropylation process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm-1, respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, Ea increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10) disappeared after hydroxypropylation process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27% to 25% after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increament of the HP-EFBF.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)307-318
Number of pages12
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume42
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013

Fingerprint

Fruits
Fibers
Chemical modification
Stretching
Thermogravimetric analysis
Activation energy
Molecular weight
X ray diffraction
Scanning electron microscopy
Palm oil
2-Propanol
Cellulose
Thermodynamic stability
Diffraction
Kinetics

Keywords

  • Chemical modification
  • Empty fruit bunches
  • Hydroxypropyl-EFBF
  • Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Hydroxypropylation of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG). / Noreen Farzuhana, M. Z.; Zakaria, Sarani.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 42, No. 3, 03.2013, p. 307-318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxypropylation method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (Ea), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increament of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm-1, but after hydroxypropylation process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm-1, respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, Ea increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10) disappeared after hydroxypropylation process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27{\%} to 25{\%} after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increament of the HP-EFBF.",
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