Patient cost for type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient care

Wan Norlida Ibrahim, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid Syed Junid, Aniza Abdul Aziz, Norsa'adah Bachok, Norhayati Mohd Noor, Aniza Ismail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: To estimate the cost of out patient care for type II diabetes from patient)s perspective. Design: This study was conducted at five districts in Malaysia over 1 year period. Type 2 diabetes patients who regularly attended health clinics for out patient follow-up were enrolled as respondents by a systematic random sampling. Patients were interviewed for all expenses used for their diabetes care follow-up. The out of pocket cost estimated were cost for transportation, food and drinks during follow-up, alternative medicine consumed and equipment used for self-monitoring blood glucose measurement. Productivity loss was estimated from time spent on follow-up for both patients and companions. Results: A total of 179 patients responded to the questionnaires. Sixty three percent were female and majority was Malay (97.2%) with mean (SD) age of 56.8 (8.52) years old. The mean (SD) household income was RM 1268.2 ± 1660.98, duration of diagnosis 5.5 ± 3.73 years and frequency of follow up 6.0 ± 3.0 times. About a quarter of the patients was either accompanied or sent by relatives during follow-up, with mean (SD) patient time of 128.13(47.41) minutes and companion time 26.42(52.46) minutes. The estimated mean (SD) out of pocket cost was RM33.7(24.65) with patient mean annual productivity loss of RM4.8(5.81). Twenty-three percent of the patients took alternative treatment with the mean (SD) cost of the alternative medicine per month was RM 129.9 (191.63). Conclusion: This study provides direct data on out of pocket spending for outpatient care at primary care government health clinics where 2.6% of annual household income is used for the routine out patient follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-342
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Medical Journal
Volume21
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Ambulatory Care
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Costs and Cost Analysis
Health Expenditures
Complementary Therapies
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
Aftercare
Malaysia
Primary Health Care
Patient Care
Food
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Out of pocket cost
  • Outpatient
  • Primary care
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Patient cost for type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient care. / Ibrahim, Wan Norlida; Syed Junid, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid; Aziz, Aniza Abdul; Bachok, Norsa'adah; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Ismail, Aniza.

In: International Medical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2014, p. 338-342.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ibrahim, WN, Syed Junid, SMA-J, Aziz, AA, Bachok, N, Noor, NM & Ismail, A 2014, 'Patient cost for type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient care', International Medical Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 338-342.
Ibrahim, Wan Norlida ; Syed Junid, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid ; Aziz, Aniza Abdul ; Bachok, Norsa'adah ; Noor, Norhayati Mohd ; Ismail, Aniza. / Patient cost for type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient care. In: International Medical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 21, No. 3. pp. 338-342.
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abstract = "Objective: To estimate the cost of out patient care for type II diabetes from patient)s perspective. Design: This study was conducted at five districts in Malaysia over 1 year period. Type 2 diabetes patients who regularly attended health clinics for out patient follow-up were enrolled as respondents by a systematic random sampling. Patients were interviewed for all expenses used for their diabetes care follow-up. The out of pocket cost estimated were cost for transportation, food and drinks during follow-up, alternative medicine consumed and equipment used for self-monitoring blood glucose measurement. Productivity loss was estimated from time spent on follow-up for both patients and companions. Results: A total of 179 patients responded to the questionnaires. Sixty three percent were female and majority was Malay (97.2{\%}) with mean (SD) age of 56.8 (8.52) years old. The mean (SD) household income was RM 1268.2 ± 1660.98, duration of diagnosis 5.5 ± 3.73 years and frequency of follow up 6.0 ± 3.0 times. About a quarter of the patients was either accompanied or sent by relatives during follow-up, with mean (SD) patient time of 128.13(47.41) minutes and companion time 26.42(52.46) minutes. The estimated mean (SD) out of pocket cost was RM33.7(24.65) with patient mean annual productivity loss of RM4.8(5.81). Twenty-three percent of the patients took alternative treatment with the mean (SD) cost of the alternative medicine per month was RM 129.9 (191.63). Conclusion: This study provides direct data on out of pocket spending for outpatient care at primary care government health clinics where 2.6{\%} of annual household income is used for the routine out patient follow-up.",
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AU - Aziz, Aniza Abdul

AU - Bachok, Norsa'adah

AU - Noor, Norhayati Mohd

AU - Ismail, Aniza

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N2 - Objective: To estimate the cost of out patient care for type II diabetes from patient)s perspective. Design: This study was conducted at five districts in Malaysia over 1 year period. Type 2 diabetes patients who regularly attended health clinics for out patient follow-up were enrolled as respondents by a systematic random sampling. Patients were interviewed for all expenses used for their diabetes care follow-up. The out of pocket cost estimated were cost for transportation, food and drinks during follow-up, alternative medicine consumed and equipment used for self-monitoring blood glucose measurement. Productivity loss was estimated from time spent on follow-up for both patients and companions. Results: A total of 179 patients responded to the questionnaires. Sixty three percent were female and majority was Malay (97.2%) with mean (SD) age of 56.8 (8.52) years old. The mean (SD) household income was RM 1268.2 ± 1660.98, duration of diagnosis 5.5 ± 3.73 years and frequency of follow up 6.0 ± 3.0 times. About a quarter of the patients was either accompanied or sent by relatives during follow-up, with mean (SD) patient time of 128.13(47.41) minutes and companion time 26.42(52.46) minutes. The estimated mean (SD) out of pocket cost was RM33.7(24.65) with patient mean annual productivity loss of RM4.8(5.81). Twenty-three percent of the patients took alternative treatment with the mean (SD) cost of the alternative medicine per month was RM 129.9 (191.63). Conclusion: This study provides direct data on out of pocket spending for outpatient care at primary care government health clinics where 2.6% of annual household income is used for the routine out patient follow-up.

AB - Objective: To estimate the cost of out patient care for type II diabetes from patient)s perspective. Design: This study was conducted at five districts in Malaysia over 1 year period. Type 2 diabetes patients who regularly attended health clinics for out patient follow-up were enrolled as respondents by a systematic random sampling. Patients were interviewed for all expenses used for their diabetes care follow-up. The out of pocket cost estimated were cost for transportation, food and drinks during follow-up, alternative medicine consumed and equipment used for self-monitoring blood glucose measurement. Productivity loss was estimated from time spent on follow-up for both patients and companions. Results: A total of 179 patients responded to the questionnaires. Sixty three percent were female and majority was Malay (97.2%) with mean (SD) age of 56.8 (8.52) years old. The mean (SD) household income was RM 1268.2 ± 1660.98, duration of diagnosis 5.5 ± 3.73 years and frequency of follow up 6.0 ± 3.0 times. About a quarter of the patients was either accompanied or sent by relatives during follow-up, with mean (SD) patient time of 128.13(47.41) minutes and companion time 26.42(52.46) minutes. The estimated mean (SD) out of pocket cost was RM33.7(24.65) with patient mean annual productivity loss of RM4.8(5.81). Twenty-three percent of the patients took alternative treatment with the mean (SD) cost of the alternative medicine per month was RM 129.9 (191.63). Conclusion: This study provides direct data on out of pocket spending for outpatient care at primary care government health clinics where 2.6% of annual household income is used for the routine out patient follow-up.

KW - Out of pocket cost

KW - Outpatient

KW - Primary care

KW - Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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