Palm oil and palm vitamin E and their implications in cardiovascular disease

Kamsiah Jaarin, Azman Abdullah

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality. Its incidence is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. Oxidized LDL cholesterol, a lipid peroxidation product, is deposited in the endothelium and triggers the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Lipid peroxidation is facilitated by the presence of free radicals. It is believed that in estrogen-deficient conditions, e.g., in women undergoing menopause, the increased risk of cardiovascular disease is thought to be due to increased lipid peroxidation as a result of high oxidative stress levels. Vitamin E, an antioxidant, inhibits lipid peroxidation in vivo. Vitamin E prevents the formation of oxidized LDL which is associated with the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Lipid-rich diet increases serum cholesterol levels. The usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil increased the formation of free radicals and is thus associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The palm fruit is a rich source of vitamin E. Palm oil is rich in palmitic acid and vitamin E and is widely used as cooking oil. Due to the association between free radicals, serum lipid and estrogen with cardiovascular disease, it is interesting to study the effects of palm oil, repeatedly heated palm oil and palm vitamin E on cardiovascular disease and its related risk factors. It was subsequently found that palm oil did not increase serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Repeatedly heated palm oil did not have detrimental effects on serum lipid. However, repeatedly heated red palm oil has a tendency to increase LDL cholesterol. The effect of palm oil on lipid serum was comparable to soy oil. Palm oil had no effect on blood pressure. However, intake of repeatedly heated palm oil increased blood pressure, which might be due to the attenuation of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant response. Palm oil helped to protect vascular structures in estrogen deficient subjects. This protective effect was lost when palm oil is repeatedly heated. The protective effect of palm oil is likely due to its high vitamin E content, which was significantly reduced when repeatedly heated. A dose of 60 mg/kg body weight palm vitamin E did not prevent atherosclerosis formation. However, it was able to preserve the internal elastic lamina and made the lesion more focal. The same dose of palm vitamin E had no effect on serum cholesterol except that it helped to increase serum HDL cholesterol level. Suggested further studies includes the elucidation of other possible mechanisms in which repeatedly heated palm oil increases blood pressure and determination of precise doses of palm vitamin E needed to prevent vascular changes in menopausal subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOil Palm: Cultivation, Production and Dietary Components
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages45-98
Number of pages54
ISBN (Print)9781617619342
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

palm oils
Vitamin E
cardiovascular diseases
vitamin E
Cardiovascular Diseases
Serum
Lipid Peroxidation
lipid peroxidation
low density lipoprotein cholesterol
Cholesterol
cholesterol
blood lipids
LDL Cholesterol
estrogens
Free Radicals
blood pressure
Lipids
cooking fats and oils
menopause
Estrogens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Jaarin, K., & Abdullah, A. (2011). Palm oil and palm vitamin E and their implications in cardiovascular disease. In Oil Palm: Cultivation, Production and Dietary Components (pp. 45-98). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

Palm oil and palm vitamin E and their implications in cardiovascular disease. / Jaarin, Kamsiah; Abdullah, Azman.

Oil Palm: Cultivation, Production and Dietary Components. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011. p. 45-98.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Jaarin, K & Abdullah, A 2011, Palm oil and palm vitamin E and their implications in cardiovascular disease. in Oil Palm: Cultivation, Production and Dietary Components. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 45-98.
Jaarin K, Abdullah A. Palm oil and palm vitamin E and their implications in cardiovascular disease. In Oil Palm: Cultivation, Production and Dietary Components. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2011. p. 45-98
Jaarin, Kamsiah ; Abdullah, Azman. / Palm oil and palm vitamin E and their implications in cardiovascular disease. Oil Palm: Cultivation, Production and Dietary Components. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011. pp. 45-98
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