Optimization of response surface methodology by D-optimal design for synthesis of food-grade palm kernel based biolubricant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper outlines the production of biolubricant base stock trimethylolpropane triester (TMPTE), which was derived from crude palm kernel fatty acids (CPKFAs). The effects of production variables including crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and the amount of H2SO4 catalyst on reaction performance were examined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions occurred with a crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio of 3.05:1, a reaction time of 5.98 h, a reaction temperature of 150 °C, and a catalyst amount of 1.01 wt%. Under the optimal conditions, a high yield percentage of 86.13 ± 0.7% trimethylolpropane triester was obtained with 99.13 ± 0.4% of trimethylolpropane triester composition. TMPTE showed a high viscosity index, a low pour point, a high flash point of 154.8, −10 °C, and 320 °C, respectively, coupled with a good oxidative stability at 245 °C. The synthesized product was categorized as ISO VG 46. TMPTE is possible to be used as a hydraulic fluid in food processing machinery based on compatible lubrication properties with the same grade commercial lubricants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111452
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Volume139
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

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biolubricants
palm kernels
food grades
response surface methodology
fatty acids
catalysts
synthesis
pour point
lubricants
oxidative stability
food processing
temperature
viscosity
fluid mechanics

Keywords

  • Biolubricant
  • Food-grade lubricant
  • Palm kernel oil
  • Response surface methodology
  • Trimethylolpropane trimester

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

@article{9149b0b4af064db685e9acc35535b1b9,
title = "Optimization of response surface methodology by D-optimal design for synthesis of food-grade palm kernel based biolubricant",
abstract = "This paper outlines the production of biolubricant base stock trimethylolpropane triester (TMPTE), which was derived from crude palm kernel fatty acids (CPKFAs). The effects of production variables including crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and the amount of H2SO4 catalyst on reaction performance were examined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions occurred with a crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio of 3.05:1, a reaction time of 5.98 h, a reaction temperature of 150 °C, and a catalyst amount of 1.01 wt{\%}. Under the optimal conditions, a high yield percentage of 86.13 ± 0.7{\%} trimethylolpropane triester was obtained with 99.13 ± 0.4{\%} of trimethylolpropane triester composition. TMPTE showed a high viscosity index, a low pour point, a high flash point of 154.8, −10 °C, and 320 °C, respectively, coupled with a good oxidative stability at 245 °C. The synthesized product was categorized as ISO VG 46. TMPTE is possible to be used as a hydraulic fluid in food processing machinery based on compatible lubrication properties with the same grade commercial lubricants.",
keywords = "Biolubricant, Food-grade lubricant, Palm kernel oil, Response surface methodology, Trimethylolpropane trimester",
author = "M. Bahadi and {Mohd Yusoff}, {Mohd Firdaus} and Jumat Salimon and Darfizzi Derawi",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.06.015",
language = "English",
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issn = "0926-6690",
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AU - Bahadi, M.

AU - Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Firdaus

AU - Salimon, Jumat

AU - Derawi, Darfizzi

PY - 2019/11/1

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N2 - This paper outlines the production of biolubricant base stock trimethylolpropane triester (TMPTE), which was derived from crude palm kernel fatty acids (CPKFAs). The effects of production variables including crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and the amount of H2SO4 catalyst on reaction performance were examined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions occurred with a crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio of 3.05:1, a reaction time of 5.98 h, a reaction temperature of 150 °C, and a catalyst amount of 1.01 wt%. Under the optimal conditions, a high yield percentage of 86.13 ± 0.7% trimethylolpropane triester was obtained with 99.13 ± 0.4% of trimethylolpropane triester composition. TMPTE showed a high viscosity index, a low pour point, a high flash point of 154.8, −10 °C, and 320 °C, respectively, coupled with a good oxidative stability at 245 °C. The synthesized product was categorized as ISO VG 46. TMPTE is possible to be used as a hydraulic fluid in food processing machinery based on compatible lubrication properties with the same grade commercial lubricants.

AB - This paper outlines the production of biolubricant base stock trimethylolpropane triester (TMPTE), which was derived from crude palm kernel fatty acids (CPKFAs). The effects of production variables including crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and the amount of H2SO4 catalyst on reaction performance were examined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions occurred with a crude palm kernel fatty acids-to-trimethylolpropane molar ratio of 3.05:1, a reaction time of 5.98 h, a reaction temperature of 150 °C, and a catalyst amount of 1.01 wt%. Under the optimal conditions, a high yield percentage of 86.13 ± 0.7% trimethylolpropane triester was obtained with 99.13 ± 0.4% of trimethylolpropane triester composition. TMPTE showed a high viscosity index, a low pour point, a high flash point of 154.8, −10 °C, and 320 °C, respectively, coupled with a good oxidative stability at 245 °C. The synthesized product was categorized as ISO VG 46. TMPTE is possible to be used as a hydraulic fluid in food processing machinery based on compatible lubrication properties with the same grade commercial lubricants.

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