Optimization of hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction and functional characterization of palm kernel cake protein

Kah Leong Chee, Mohd. Khan Ayob

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Response surface methodology was applied to study the optimization of palm kernel cake protein (PKCP) hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction. The optimum PKCP yield (28.37%) when extracted using 1.50% sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) of pH 10, at 50 C, and the 1:70 (w/v) ratio of cake-to-solvent was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the protein yield from an alkaline (pH 10) extraction (8.12 ± 0.24%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed a higher denatured temperature (99.78 C) for PKCP as compared with alkaline extracted one (96.96 C), suggesting that a less denatured protein population is obtained. Electrophoresis of the PKCP revealed that the protein has 11 bands with MW ranging from 2.11 to 83.19 kDa. Relative to soy protein isolate, PKCP showed higher surface hydrophobicity (165.96 vs. 51.51), better solubility at pH 7 (87.65% vs. 41.21%), oil-binding capacity (7.73 vs. 2.96 g/g) and emulsifying activity (178.50 vs. 32.57 m2/g), but lower water-binding capacity (0.36 vs. 11.70 g/g), emulsifying stability (32.24% vs. 43.08%), foaming capacity (20.8% vs. 100.0%) and foam stability (3.80 vs. 19.20 ml). PKCP contained the highest amount of glutamic acid (16.86 g/100 g protein) and followed by arginine (10.78 g/100 g protein). With respect to the 1991 standard of the FAO/WHO for preschool children, PKCP's essential amino acid profile showed deficiencies. Therefore, it can be used as a complementary protein source by supplementing with a tryptophan-rich source, as this was the limiting amino acid.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-122
Number of pages14
JournalFood Science and Technology International
Volume19
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013

Fingerprint

palm kernel cake
Proteins
proteins
emulsifying
hexametaphosphate
Amino acids
water binding capacity
foaming capacity
limiting amino acids
preschool children
soy protein isolate
Soybean Proteins
Essential Amino Acids
binding capacity
Arginine
foams
hydrophobicity
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
differential scanning calorimetry
response surface methodology

Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • extraction systems
  • food emulsions
  • food proteins
  • palm kernel cake
  • palm oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Optimization of hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction and functional characterization of palm kernel cake protein. / Chee, Kah Leong; Ayob, Mohd. Khan.

In: Food Science and Technology International, Vol. 19, No. 2, 04.2013, p. 109-122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Response surface methodology was applied to study the optimization of palm kernel cake protein (PKCP) hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction. The optimum PKCP yield (28.37{\%}) when extracted using 1.50{\%} sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) of pH 10, at 50 C, and the 1:70 (w/v) ratio of cake-to-solvent was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the protein yield from an alkaline (pH 10) extraction (8.12 ± 0.24{\%}). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed a higher denatured temperature (99.78 C) for PKCP as compared with alkaline extracted one (96.96 C), suggesting that a less denatured protein population is obtained. Electrophoresis of the PKCP revealed that the protein has 11 bands with MW ranging from 2.11 to 83.19 kDa. Relative to soy protein isolate, PKCP showed higher surface hydrophobicity (165.96 vs. 51.51), better solubility at pH 7 (87.65{\%} vs. 41.21{\%}), oil-binding capacity (7.73 vs. 2.96 g/g) and emulsifying activity (178.50 vs. 32.57 m2/g), but lower water-binding capacity (0.36 vs. 11.70 g/g), emulsifying stability (32.24{\%} vs. 43.08{\%}), foaming capacity (20.8{\%} vs. 100.0{\%}) and foam stability (3.80 vs. 19.20 ml). PKCP contained the highest amount of glutamic acid (16.86 g/100 g protein) and followed by arginine (10.78 g/100 g protein). With respect to the 1991 standard of the FAO/WHO for preschool children, PKCP's essential amino acid profile showed deficiencies. Therefore, it can be used as a complementary protein source by supplementing with a tryptophan-rich source, as this was the limiting amino acid.",
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