Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolic compounds from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) residues

C. F. Yap, C. W. Ho, Wan Aida Wan Mustapha, S. W. Chan, C. Y. Lee, Y. S. Leong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC) of star fruit residues using response surface methodology (RSM). By using Design Expert (Version 6.0.10, Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis) statistical software, a five-level, three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate the effects of three independent variables including solvent concentration, X1 (40-80%), extraction temperature, X2 (25-55°C), and extraction time, X 3 (90-270 min) on total phenolic content. These independent variables were coded at three levels and their natural values chosen according to preliminary experimental results. In single factor experiments, 60% acetone, 180 minutes extraction time and 40°C extraction temperature were set as center points due to their highest TPC value, which were 2366.71, 2436.03, and 2510.95 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (DW) of star fruit residues, respectively. The results showed that the acetone concentration was statistically the most significant factor (p<0.01) and the optimal extraction conditions obtained were: acetone concentration, 65.34%; extraction temperature, 43.18°C; and extraction time, 233.51 min. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental TPC was 965.65 ± 30.87 mg GAE/100 g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value, 96552 mg GAE/100 g DW.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-520
Number of pages10
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume38
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009

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Averrhoa carambola
phenolic compounds
acetone
temperature
response surface methodology

Keywords

  • Central composite rotatable design
  • Response surface methodology
  • Star fruit residues
  • Total phenolic compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolic compounds from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) residues. / Yap, C. F.; Ho, C. W.; Wan Mustapha, Wan Aida; Chan, S. W.; Lee, C. Y.; Leong, Y. S.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 38, No. 4, 08.2009, p. 511-520.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yap, C. F. ; Ho, C. W. ; Wan Mustapha, Wan Aida ; Chan, S. W. ; Lee, C. Y. ; Leong, Y. S. / Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolic compounds from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) residues. In: Sains Malaysiana. 2009 ; Vol. 38, No. 4. pp. 511-520.
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