Pengoptimuman kaedah dan analisis farmaseutik dalam air kumbahan dan air sungai

Translated title of the contribution: Optimisation of analytical method and analysis of pharmaceuticals in sewage and river water

Nurfaizah Abu Tahrim, Md. Pauzi Abdullah, Yang Farina Abdul Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) particularly in Malaysia are not designed to eliminate pharmaceuticals which belong to the category of emerging contaminants. Considering the levels of these contaminants could be incredibly low which are in the range of parts per billion and trillion in the aquatic environment, very sensitive analytical techniques and extraction methodologies have to be developed. In this present work, an analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) in positive electrospray ionisation mode was successfully developed to determine the presence of ten selected pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment. The compounds under study include acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, prednisolone, ketoprofen, norgestrel and simvastatin. The SPE procedure was successfully achieved with a single extraction step using a low sample volume of 100 mL and minimum volume of eluting solvent. Percentage recovery for all pharmaceuticals in river water samples were in the range of 54-99% while for STP effluent samples were in the range of 57-96%. The total run time inclusive of equilibration in LC-TOF-MS analysis was 25 min with sample injection volume of 20 µL. The application of the optimised SPE procedure together with the instrumental analysis resulted in limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.031 - 0.882 µg/L and 0.030 - 0.926 µg/L in STP and river water samples, respectively.

Original languageMalay
Pages (from-to)931-940
Number of pages10
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume47
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

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Sewage
Sewage treatment plants
Rivers
Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Liquid chromatography
Mass spectrometry
Norgestrel
Impurities
Ketoprofen
Sulfamethoxazole
Electrospray ionization
Metoprolol
Simvastatin
Carbamazepine
Theophylline
Acetaminophen
Prednisolone
Caffeine
Effluents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Pengoptimuman kaedah dan analisis farmaseutik dalam air kumbahan dan air sungai. / Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Abdul Aziz, Yang Farina.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 47, No. 5, 01.05.2018, p. 931-940.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu ; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi ; Abdul Aziz, Yang Farina. / Pengoptimuman kaedah dan analisis farmaseutik dalam air kumbahan dan air sungai. In: Sains Malaysiana. 2018 ; Vol. 47, No. 5. pp. 931-940.
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