Observations of the F3-layer at equatorial region during 2005

A. F M Zain, Abdullah Sabirin, M. J. Homam, F. C. Seman, Mardina Abdullah, Y. H. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The existence of the F3-layer has been observed at Brazilian equatorial stations. This paper reports on a 1-year observations at Parit Raja, Malaysia (Lat. 1°52′N, Long. 103°48′E). The greatest number of appearances of the F3-layer is around local noon while the least is after local dawn. Its occurrence is more pronounced during winter and the equinoxes. The mean height of reflection for the layer is about 600 km reaching a maximum of about 900 km during the winter of 2004/2005. It is seen that the critical frequency of the F2-layer decreases with the appearance of the F3-layer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-925
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Volume70
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

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equatorial regions
winter
equinoxes
Malaysia
noon
critical frequencies
stations
occurrences

Keywords

  • Critical frequency
  • Digisonde
  • Equatorial ionosphere
  • F3-layer
  • Ionogram
  • Virtual heights

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Observations of the F3-layer at equatorial region during 2005. / Zain, A. F M; Sabirin, Abdullah; Homam, M. J.; Seman, F. C.; Abdullah, Mardina; Ho, Y. H.

In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 70, No. 6, 04.2008, p. 918-925.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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