Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment of Aluminium Ingestion Via Drinking Water in Malaysia

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Exposure to aluminium (Al) is inevitable in the daily life because of its abundance in the environmental media through natural processes. Meanwhile, several studies have reported a positive association between Alzheimer’s disease and a higher level of Al ingestion through drinking water. The present study is the first of its kind in Malaysia which predicts the human health risk of Al ingestion via drinking water at the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during 2015–2016 from the four stages of drinking water supply chain at the basin to determine the concentrations of Al by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The determined mean concentration of Al in river 2.50E−01 ± 1.89E−01 mg/L crossed the Malaysian drinking water quality standard of 0.2 mg/L. The higher concentration of Al in the Langat River might be due to natural weathering of Al-bearing minerals. The mean Al concentrations in the treated water by the treatment plants, household’s tap and after filtration water, respectively, were found to be within the Malaysian drinking water quality standard. This study suggests that there is no potential human health risk of Al ingestion through drinking water (HQ = 3.81E−03 ± 1.82E−03) at 95% confidence level in the basin because the hazard quotient (HQ) value is less than 1. However, the authorities need to be careful of excessive ingestion of Al via drinking water because the water treatment plants in the basin follow the conventional method to treat raw water. The turbidity in the tropical Langat River changes very frequently; thus, the doses of Al2(SO4)3 for water disinfection are very crucial. Therefore, reverse osmosis technology can be introduced in the treatment plants because the United States Environmental Protection Agency has recommended that it can remove all types of metal > 90% from treated water.

Original languageEnglish
JournalExposure and Health
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Health risks
Malaysia
Aluminum
Potable water
Drinking Water
Risk assessment
health risk
risk assessment
aluminum
Eating
drinking water
Health
Rivers
Water
Water Purification
Water Quality
Water quality
Hazards
Bearings (structural)
water

Keywords

  • Aluminium
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Chronic daily intake
  • Drinking water
  • Malaysia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

@article{a9a24acdcafc4d4ca490e66292db07a9,
title = "Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment of Aluminium Ingestion Via Drinking Water in Malaysia",
abstract = "Exposure to aluminium (Al) is inevitable in the daily life because of its abundance in the environmental media through natural processes. Meanwhile, several studies have reported a positive association between Alzheimer’s disease and a higher level of Al ingestion through drinking water. The present study is the first of its kind in Malaysia which predicts the human health risk of Al ingestion via drinking water at the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during 2015–2016 from the four stages of drinking water supply chain at the basin to determine the concentrations of Al by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The determined mean concentration of Al in river 2.50E−01 ± 1.89E−01 mg/L crossed the Malaysian drinking water quality standard of 0.2 mg/L. The higher concentration of Al in the Langat River might be due to natural weathering of Al-bearing minerals. The mean Al concentrations in the treated water by the treatment plants, household’s tap and after filtration water, respectively, were found to be within the Malaysian drinking water quality standard. This study suggests that there is no potential human health risk of Al ingestion through drinking water (HQ = 3.81E−03 ± 1.82E−03) at 95{\%} confidence level in the basin because the hazard quotient (HQ) value is less than 1. However, the authorities need to be careful of excessive ingestion of Al via drinking water because the water treatment plants in the basin follow the conventional method to treat raw water. The turbidity in the tropical Langat River changes very frequently; thus, the doses of Al2(SO4)3 for water disinfection are very crucial. Therefore, reverse osmosis technology can be introduced in the treatment plants because the United States Environmental Protection Agency has recommended that it can remove all types of metal > 90{\%} from treated water.",
keywords = "Aluminium, Alzheimer’s disease, Chronic daily intake, Drinking water, Malaysia",
author = "Ahmed, {Minhaz Farid} and Mazlin Mokhtar and Alam Lubna and Mohamed, {Che Abd. Rahim} and Goh, {Choo Ta}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12403-019-00297-w",
language = "English",
journal = "Exposure and Health",
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T1 - Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment of Aluminium Ingestion Via Drinking Water in Malaysia

AU - Ahmed, Minhaz Farid

AU - Mokhtar, Mazlin

AU - Lubna, Alam

AU - Mohamed, Che Abd. Rahim

AU - Goh, Choo Ta

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Exposure to aluminium (Al) is inevitable in the daily life because of its abundance in the environmental media through natural processes. Meanwhile, several studies have reported a positive association between Alzheimer’s disease and a higher level of Al ingestion through drinking water. The present study is the first of its kind in Malaysia which predicts the human health risk of Al ingestion via drinking water at the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during 2015–2016 from the four stages of drinking water supply chain at the basin to determine the concentrations of Al by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The determined mean concentration of Al in river 2.50E−01 ± 1.89E−01 mg/L crossed the Malaysian drinking water quality standard of 0.2 mg/L. The higher concentration of Al in the Langat River might be due to natural weathering of Al-bearing minerals. The mean Al concentrations in the treated water by the treatment plants, household’s tap and after filtration water, respectively, were found to be within the Malaysian drinking water quality standard. This study suggests that there is no potential human health risk of Al ingestion through drinking water (HQ = 3.81E−03 ± 1.82E−03) at 95% confidence level in the basin because the hazard quotient (HQ) value is less than 1. However, the authorities need to be careful of excessive ingestion of Al via drinking water because the water treatment plants in the basin follow the conventional method to treat raw water. The turbidity in the tropical Langat River changes very frequently; thus, the doses of Al2(SO4)3 for water disinfection are very crucial. Therefore, reverse osmosis technology can be introduced in the treatment plants because the United States Environmental Protection Agency has recommended that it can remove all types of metal > 90% from treated water.

AB - Exposure to aluminium (Al) is inevitable in the daily life because of its abundance in the environmental media through natural processes. Meanwhile, several studies have reported a positive association between Alzheimer’s disease and a higher level of Al ingestion through drinking water. The present study is the first of its kind in Malaysia which predicts the human health risk of Al ingestion via drinking water at the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during 2015–2016 from the four stages of drinking water supply chain at the basin to determine the concentrations of Al by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The determined mean concentration of Al in river 2.50E−01 ± 1.89E−01 mg/L crossed the Malaysian drinking water quality standard of 0.2 mg/L. The higher concentration of Al in the Langat River might be due to natural weathering of Al-bearing minerals. The mean Al concentrations in the treated water by the treatment plants, household’s tap and after filtration water, respectively, were found to be within the Malaysian drinking water quality standard. This study suggests that there is no potential human health risk of Al ingestion through drinking water (HQ = 3.81E−03 ± 1.82E−03) at 95% confidence level in the basin because the hazard quotient (HQ) value is less than 1. However, the authorities need to be careful of excessive ingestion of Al via drinking water because the water treatment plants in the basin follow the conventional method to treat raw water. The turbidity in the tropical Langat River changes very frequently; thus, the doses of Al2(SO4)3 for water disinfection are very crucial. Therefore, reverse osmosis technology can be introduced in the treatment plants because the United States Environmental Protection Agency has recommended that it can remove all types of metal > 90% from treated water.

KW - Aluminium

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KW - Chronic daily intake

KW - Drinking water

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