Near field and far field effects in the taguchi-optimized design of an InP/GaAs-based double wafer-fused mqw long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

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Abstract

Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1250006
JournalJournal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

Fingerprint

Surface emitting lasers
surface emitting lasers
far fields
near fields
wafers
Wavelength
cavities
wavelengths
Semiconductor quantum wells
Optical losses
quantum wells
Bias voltage
optical coupling
Fast Fourier transforms
Data communication systems
Fiber optics
Light sources
data transmission
Electric power utilization
threshold currents

Keywords

  • air-post
  • far field
  • InGaAsP
  • LW-VCSEL
  • modulation speed
  • MQW
  • near field
  • threshold current

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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title = "Near field and far field effects in the taguchi-optimized design of an InP/GaAs-based double wafer-fused mqw long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser",
abstract = "Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.",
keywords = "air-post, far field, InGaAsP, LW-VCSEL, modulation speed, MQW, near field, threshold current",
author = "{N V Visvanathan}, {P. Susthitha Menon} and K. Kandiah and {Jit Singh}, {Mandeep Singh} and S. Shaari and Apte, {P. R.}",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1142/S0218863512500063",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
journal = "Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials",
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T1 - Near field and far field effects in the taguchi-optimized design of an InP/GaAs-based double wafer-fused mqw long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

AU - N V Visvanathan, P. Susthitha Menon

AU - Kandiah, K.

AU - Jit Singh, Mandeep Singh

AU - Shaari, S.

AU - Apte, P. R.

PY - 2012/3

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N2 - Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

AB - Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

KW - air-post

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KW - modulation speed

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KW - threshold current

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