Multivariate analysis of physical and chemical parameters of marine water quality in the straits of Johor, Malaysia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: The purposes of this study was to determine the main parameters that affect the ecological conditions in marine water and to identify the similarity of the areas with respect to the water quality status. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study which focuses on multivariate statistics on time series data of six marine parameters from 12 monitoring stations in the Straits of Johor, Malaysia. Results: Principal component analysis revealed that there are three main factors involved in determining the distribution of parameters, namely physicochemical, chemical and organic contaminants with the variation proportions of 37, 20 and 18%, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that all stations can be categorized into 2 clusters with distinct characteristics in terms of water quality parameters. Conclusion: There are three main factors that characterize the marine waters. The clusters connect similar sampling stations in terms of parameters and pollution levels with comparable environmental activities. Three factors representing three different processes are related to the physicochemical pollution factor, the chemical pollution factor caused by decomposition of aquatic life and the organic contaminant factor. Both of the physical parameters (Temperature and conductivity) as well as the chemical parameter (TSS) were found to the most influential, in physicochemical pollution factor. The pH and Dissolve Oxygen (DO) are parameters in the chemical pollution factor. Oil and grease involved only in the organic contaminant factor. Stations, which are located at the border between Johor Bahru city and Singapore produce organic pollution and affect the DO level of aquatic life. Three monitoring stations located in different areas of the border are exposed to high values of TSS and pH. This shows that both the Western and Eastern parts of the Straits of Johor are highly exposed to chemical pollution. Weather conditions and timing changes are the constraints of this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-436
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Technology
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

multivariate analysis
strait
water quality
pollution
pollutant
oxygen
parameter
chemical
cluster analysis
principal component analysis
conductivity
time series
decomposition
water
oil
sampling
chemical pollution
station

Keywords

  • Cluster analysis
  • Multivariate statistical analysis
  • Principal component analysis
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

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title = "Multivariate analysis of physical and chemical parameters of marine water quality in the straits of Johor, Malaysia",
abstract = "Objective: The purposes of this study was to determine the main parameters that affect the ecological conditions in marine water and to identify the similarity of the areas with respect to the water quality status. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study which focuses on multivariate statistics on time series data of six marine parameters from 12 monitoring stations in the Straits of Johor, Malaysia. Results: Principal component analysis revealed that there are three main factors involved in determining the distribution of parameters, namely physicochemical, chemical and organic contaminants with the variation proportions of 37, 20 and 18{\%}, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that all stations can be categorized into 2 clusters with distinct characteristics in terms of water quality parameters. Conclusion: There are three main factors that characterize the marine waters. The clusters connect similar sampling stations in terms of parameters and pollution levels with comparable environmental activities. Three factors representing three different processes are related to the physicochemical pollution factor, the chemical pollution factor caused by decomposition of aquatic life and the organic contaminant factor. Both of the physical parameters (Temperature and conductivity) as well as the chemical parameter (TSS) were found to the most influential, in physicochemical pollution factor. The pH and Dissolve Oxygen (DO) are parameters in the chemical pollution factor. Oil and grease involved only in the organic contaminant factor. Stations, which are located at the border between Johor Bahru city and Singapore produce organic pollution and affect the DO level of aquatic life. Three monitoring stations located in different areas of the border are exposed to high values of TSS and pH. This shows that both the Western and Eastern parts of the Straits of Johor are highly exposed to chemical pollution. Weather conditions and timing changes are the constraints of this study.",
keywords = "Cluster analysis, Multivariate statistical analysis, Principal component analysis, Water quality",
author = "{Mohamad Hamzah}, Firdaus and Othman Jaafar and Jani, {W. N F A} and {Syed Abdullah}, {Sharifah Mastura}",
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language = "English",
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AU - Jaafar, Othman

AU - Jani, W. N F A

AU - Syed Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura

PY - 2016

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AB - Objective: The purposes of this study was to determine the main parameters that affect the ecological conditions in marine water and to identify the similarity of the areas with respect to the water quality status. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study which focuses on multivariate statistics on time series data of six marine parameters from 12 monitoring stations in the Straits of Johor, Malaysia. Results: Principal component analysis revealed that there are three main factors involved in determining the distribution of parameters, namely physicochemical, chemical and organic contaminants with the variation proportions of 37, 20 and 18%, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that all stations can be categorized into 2 clusters with distinct characteristics in terms of water quality parameters. Conclusion: There are three main factors that characterize the marine waters. The clusters connect similar sampling stations in terms of parameters and pollution levels with comparable environmental activities. Three factors representing three different processes are related to the physicochemical pollution factor, the chemical pollution factor caused by decomposition of aquatic life and the organic contaminant factor. Both of the physical parameters (Temperature and conductivity) as well as the chemical parameter (TSS) were found to the most influential, in physicochemical pollution factor. The pH and Dissolve Oxygen (DO) are parameters in the chemical pollution factor. Oil and grease involved only in the organic contaminant factor. Stations, which are located at the border between Johor Bahru city and Singapore produce organic pollution and affect the DO level of aquatic life. Three monitoring stations located in different areas of the border are exposed to high values of TSS and pH. This shows that both the Western and Eastern parts of the Straits of Johor are highly exposed to chemical pollution. Weather conditions and timing changes are the constraints of this study.

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