Multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment

Noor Hassim Ismail, Krishna Gopal Rampal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the combined effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment. Materials and Methods: Pure tone audiometry test was conducted on 263 residents of a rural village who were not exposed to noise. The pack- years of smoking were computed from the subjects' smoking history. The association between pack-years and hearing impairment was assessed. The combined effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment was determined based on prevalence rate ratio. Results: There was a statistically significant trend in the number of pack-years of smoking and age as risk factors for hearing impairment. The prevalence rates of hearing impairment for nonsmokers aged 40 years and younger, smokers aged 40 years and younger, nonsmokers older than 40 years of age, and smokers older than 40 years of age were 6.9%, 11.9%, 29.7%, and 51.3%, respectively. The prevalence rate ratio for nonsmokers aged 40 years and younger, smokers aged 40 years and younger, nonsmokers older than 40 years of age, and smokers older than 40 years of age (nonsmokers aged 40 years and younger as a reference group) was 1, 1.7, 4.3, and 7.5, respectively. The prevalence rate ratios showed a multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment. Conclusion: Age and smoking are risk factors for hearing impairment. It is clear that smoking and age have multiplicative adverse effects on hearing impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-243
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1998

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Hearing Loss
Smoking
Pure-Tone Audiometry
Noise
History

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

Multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment. / Ismail, Noor Hassim; Rampal, Krishna Gopal.

In: American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery, Vol. 19, No. 4, 07.1998, p. 240-243.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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