Multi-residue analytical methodology-based liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in surface water and effluents from sewage treatment plants and hospitals

Fouad F. Al-Qaim, Md. Pauzi Abdullah, Mohamed Rozali Othman, Jalifah Latip, Zuriati Zakaria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11. ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099. ng/L in STP influent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-153
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Volume1345
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2014

Fingerprint

Sewage treatment plants
Liquid chromatography
Sewage
Surface waters
Liquid Chromatography
Mass spectrometry
Effluents
Mass Spectrometry
Caffeine
Hydrochlorothiazide
Simvastatin
Water
Drinking Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Mefenamic Acid
Gliclazide
Levonorgestrel
Effluent treatment
Sewage treatment
Enalapril

Keywords

  • Effluent and influent of hospital
  • LC-TOF/MS
  • Multi-residue analytical method
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Sewage treatment plants
  • Solid phase extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Multi-residue analytical methodology-based liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in surface water and effluents from sewage treatment plants and hospitals. / Al-Qaim, Fouad F.; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Latip, Jalifah; Zakaria, Zuriati.

In: Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1345, 06.06.2014, p. 139-153.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11. ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75{\%} were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099. ng/L in STP influent.",
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AU - Al-Qaim, Fouad F.

AU - Abdullah, Md. Pauzi

AU - Othman, Mohamed Rozali

AU - Latip, Jalifah

AU - Zakaria, Zuriati

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