Movements and home range of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis, surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

A. Mariana, Shukor Md. Nor, Norhazizi H. Muhd, Nurlemsha B. Intan, T. M. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To document movement patterns, home range, nesting behaviour and social organization of 5 individuals (3 males and 2 females) of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis (T. glis) surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases. Methods: Each shrew was fitted with a transmitter chip radio-collar which operates between the frequencies of 154.13 MHz to 154.21 MHz. Each transmitter was then tracked with a Portable Telemetry Receiver (Sirtrack, New Zealand) fitted with a 3-element Yagi antenna. Collared shrews were located using standard methods of ground-based triangulation. Each location was taken from at least 2 directional fixes and a minimum of 3 compass bearings. Fixes were taken hourly for each collared individual from the time of emergence from nest (beginning of activity) till time of entry into the nest (end of activity) every day for 5 to 7 continuous days. Three series of radio telemetry observations were carried out. The bearings, time and positions of an observer were recorded and later plotted on a graph paper in order to derive coordinates of the collared animal. [These coordinates then analyzed using Ecological Software Solutions (Biotas Version 1.03)]. Results: Nests were found in a jack fruit tree, long bushes, and 2 houses. Daily telemetry detections demonstrated 2 individuals of different sex having nests (or a nest) in the same house. All shrews emerged from and returned to their nests between 0601 to 0659 hours and 1901 to 1959 hours, respectively. Both the time of exit from and entry into nest were the same between sexes (P>0.05). Their average total active period was 4.90 to 7.00 hours with a total daily travel distant of 270 m to 382 m. A male and a female shrew can move as far as 3 285 m and 4 591 m, respectively. Active movements of T. glis were during daytime. They regularly entered some houses in the area during day and night except for one individual which visited during daytime only. The sizes of home range and core area for the shrews were 2.00-3.40 ha and 0.05-0.42 ha, respectively. Generally, the mean home range size of females was 20.8% larger than that of males. Females covered a 15.4% slightly higher daily movement range compared to males. Conclusions: This is the first radio telemetry study in Malaysia to monitor movements and home range of shrews carrying ticks on their body. It demonstrates that shrews are potential carriers of ticks from wild into the houses and their compounds based on their total active periods spent moving around from fruit orchards, secondary forest, plantations and other vegetations to trees in compound of 4 to 7 houses and vice versa. There are also evidences showing shrews have close contact with humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-434
Number of pages8
JournalAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume3
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2010

Fingerprint

Tupaia
Tupaiidae
Homing Behavior
Shrews
Malaysia
Telemetry
Radio
Ticks
Nesting Behavior
Fruit
Biota
New Zealand
Software

Keywords

  • Home range
  • Malaysia
  • Movements
  • Otoacariasis cases
  • Tree-shrew

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Movements and home range of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis, surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. / Mariana, A.; Md. Nor, Shukor; Muhd, Norhazizi H.; Intan, Nurlemsha B.; Ho, T. M.

In: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 6, 06.2010, p. 427-434.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: To document movement patterns, home range, nesting behaviour and social organization of 5 individuals (3 males and 2 females) of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis (T. glis) surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases. Methods: Each shrew was fitted with a transmitter chip radio-collar which operates between the frequencies of 154.13 MHz to 154.21 MHz. Each transmitter was then tracked with a Portable Telemetry Receiver (Sirtrack, New Zealand) fitted with a 3-element Yagi antenna. Collared shrews were located using standard methods of ground-based triangulation. Each location was taken from at least 2 directional fixes and a minimum of 3 compass bearings. Fixes were taken hourly for each collared individual from the time of emergence from nest (beginning of activity) till time of entry into the nest (end of activity) every day for 5 to 7 continuous days. Three series of radio telemetry observations were carried out. The bearings, time and positions of an observer were recorded and later plotted on a graph paper in order to derive coordinates of the collared animal. [These coordinates then analyzed using Ecological Software Solutions (Biotas Version 1.03)]. Results: Nests were found in a jack fruit tree, long bushes, and 2 houses. Daily telemetry detections demonstrated 2 individuals of different sex having nests (or a nest) in the same house. All shrews emerged from and returned to their nests between 0601 to 0659 hours and 1901 to 1959 hours, respectively. Both the time of exit from and entry into nest were the same between sexes (P>0.05). Their average total active period was 4.90 to 7.00 hours with a total daily travel distant of 270 m to 382 m. A male and a female shrew can move as far as 3 285 m and 4 591 m, respectively. Active movements of T. glis were during daytime. They regularly entered some houses in the area during day and night except for one individual which visited during daytime only. The sizes of home range and core area for the shrews were 2.00-3.40 ha and 0.05-0.42 ha, respectively. Generally, the mean home range size of females was 20.8{\%} larger than that of males. Females covered a 15.4{\%} slightly higher daily movement range compared to males. Conclusions: This is the first radio telemetry study in Malaysia to monitor movements and home range of shrews carrying ticks on their body. It demonstrates that shrews are potential carriers of ticks from wild into the houses and their compounds based on their total active periods spent moving around from fruit orchards, secondary forest, plantations and other vegetations to trees in compound of 4 to 7 houses and vice versa. There are also evidences showing shrews have close contact with humans.",
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AU - Muhd, Norhazizi H.

AU - Intan, Nurlemsha B.

AU - Ho, T. M.

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N2 - Objective: To document movement patterns, home range, nesting behaviour and social organization of 5 individuals (3 males and 2 females) of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis (T. glis) surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases. Methods: Each shrew was fitted with a transmitter chip radio-collar which operates between the frequencies of 154.13 MHz to 154.21 MHz. Each transmitter was then tracked with a Portable Telemetry Receiver (Sirtrack, New Zealand) fitted with a 3-element Yagi antenna. Collared shrews were located using standard methods of ground-based triangulation. Each location was taken from at least 2 directional fixes and a minimum of 3 compass bearings. Fixes were taken hourly for each collared individual from the time of emergence from nest (beginning of activity) till time of entry into the nest (end of activity) every day for 5 to 7 continuous days. Three series of radio telemetry observations were carried out. The bearings, time and positions of an observer were recorded and later plotted on a graph paper in order to derive coordinates of the collared animal. [These coordinates then analyzed using Ecological Software Solutions (Biotas Version 1.03)]. Results: Nests were found in a jack fruit tree, long bushes, and 2 houses. Daily telemetry detections demonstrated 2 individuals of different sex having nests (or a nest) in the same house. All shrews emerged from and returned to their nests between 0601 to 0659 hours and 1901 to 1959 hours, respectively. Both the time of exit from and entry into nest were the same between sexes (P>0.05). Their average total active period was 4.90 to 7.00 hours with a total daily travel distant of 270 m to 382 m. A male and a female shrew can move as far as 3 285 m and 4 591 m, respectively. Active movements of T. glis were during daytime. They regularly entered some houses in the area during day and night except for one individual which visited during daytime only. The sizes of home range and core area for the shrews were 2.00-3.40 ha and 0.05-0.42 ha, respectively. Generally, the mean home range size of females was 20.8% larger than that of males. Females covered a 15.4% slightly higher daily movement range compared to males. Conclusions: This is the first radio telemetry study in Malaysia to monitor movements and home range of shrews carrying ticks on their body. It demonstrates that shrews are potential carriers of ticks from wild into the houses and their compounds based on their total active periods spent moving around from fruit orchards, secondary forest, plantations and other vegetations to trees in compound of 4 to 7 houses and vice versa. There are also evidences showing shrews have close contact with humans.

AB - Objective: To document movement patterns, home range, nesting behaviour and social organization of 5 individuals (3 males and 2 females) of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis (T. glis) surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases. Methods: Each shrew was fitted with a transmitter chip radio-collar which operates between the frequencies of 154.13 MHz to 154.21 MHz. Each transmitter was then tracked with a Portable Telemetry Receiver (Sirtrack, New Zealand) fitted with a 3-element Yagi antenna. Collared shrews were located using standard methods of ground-based triangulation. Each location was taken from at least 2 directional fixes and a minimum of 3 compass bearings. Fixes were taken hourly for each collared individual from the time of emergence from nest (beginning of activity) till time of entry into the nest (end of activity) every day for 5 to 7 continuous days. Three series of radio telemetry observations were carried out. The bearings, time and positions of an observer were recorded and later plotted on a graph paper in order to derive coordinates of the collared animal. [These coordinates then analyzed using Ecological Software Solutions (Biotas Version 1.03)]. Results: Nests were found in a jack fruit tree, long bushes, and 2 houses. Daily telemetry detections demonstrated 2 individuals of different sex having nests (or a nest) in the same house. All shrews emerged from and returned to their nests between 0601 to 0659 hours and 1901 to 1959 hours, respectively. Both the time of exit from and entry into nest were the same between sexes (P>0.05). Their average total active period was 4.90 to 7.00 hours with a total daily travel distant of 270 m to 382 m. A male and a female shrew can move as far as 3 285 m and 4 591 m, respectively. Active movements of T. glis were during daytime. They regularly entered some houses in the area during day and night except for one individual which visited during daytime only. The sizes of home range and core area for the shrews were 2.00-3.40 ha and 0.05-0.42 ha, respectively. Generally, the mean home range size of females was 20.8% larger than that of males. Females covered a 15.4% slightly higher daily movement range compared to males. Conclusions: This is the first radio telemetry study in Malaysia to monitor movements and home range of shrews carrying ticks on their body. It demonstrates that shrews are potential carriers of ticks from wild into the houses and their compounds based on their total active periods spent moving around from fruit orchards, secondary forest, plantations and other vegetations to trees in compound of 4 to 7 houses and vice versa. There are also evidences showing shrews have close contact with humans.

KW - Home range

KW - Malaysia

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KW - Tree-shrew

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