Morphology and properties of polypropylene blends containingphenolic resin produced from the liquefaction of empty fruit bunch fibres

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Abstract

Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin prepared from phenol-liquefied empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres was blended with polypropylene (PP) using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of the PF content (10, 20, 30 and40 wt.%) blended with PP on the properties of the PP/PF board were investigated. SEM images depicted the formation of spherical protuberances and voids in the PP/PF board with the increasing PF content. The size of the protuberances was also increased with the PF content. The formation of void could be due to the release of water, ammonia and formaldehyde during the blending and hot-press processes. The density, moisture content and maximum water absorption of the PP/PF board increased with the increase of PF content. The TG curves of the PP/PF boards revealed that the PF and PP in the PP/PF board decomposed at different temperature ranges, i.e., 200-420 and 425-480 °C, respectively. The addition of PF to PP reduced the activation energy of the first stage thermal decomposition of the PP/PF boards. The addition of 10 wt.% PF was the optimum content to produce PP/PF board with optimum mechanical properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-676
Number of pages8
JournalPolymers and Polymer Composites
Volume19
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Polypropylenes
Liquefaction
Fruits
Phenol
Formaldehyde
Phenols
Resins
Fibers
Water absorption
Extruders
Ammonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

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title = "Morphology and properties of polypropylene blends containingphenolic resin produced from the liquefaction of empty fruit bunch fibres",
abstract = "Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin prepared from phenol-liquefied empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres was blended with polypropylene (PP) using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of the PF content (10, 20, 30 and40 wt.{\%}) blended with PP on the properties of the PP/PF board were investigated. SEM images depicted the formation of spherical protuberances and voids in the PP/PF board with the increasing PF content. The size of the protuberances was also increased with the PF content. The formation of void could be due to the release of water, ammonia and formaldehyde during the blending and hot-press processes. The density, moisture content and maximum water absorption of the PP/PF board increased with the increase of PF content. The TG curves of the PP/PF boards revealed that the PF and PP in the PP/PF board decomposed at different temperature ranges, i.e., 200-420 and 425-480 °C, respectively. The addition of PF to PP reduced the activation energy of the first stage thermal decomposition of the PP/PF boards. The addition of 10 wt.{\%} PF was the optimum content to produce PP/PF board with optimum mechanical properties.",
author = "Chai, {Lee Lee} and Chia, {Chin Hua} and Sarani Zakaria and {Syed Jaafar}, {Sharifah Nabihah} and Rozaidi Rasid",
year = "2011",
language = "English",
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pages = "669--676",
journal = "Polymers and Polymer Composites",
issn = "0967-3911",
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T1 - Morphology and properties of polypropylene blends containingphenolic resin produced from the liquefaction of empty fruit bunch fibres

AU - Chai, Lee Lee

AU - Chia, Chin Hua

AU - Zakaria, Sarani

AU - Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah

AU - Rasid, Rozaidi

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin prepared from phenol-liquefied empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres was blended with polypropylene (PP) using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of the PF content (10, 20, 30 and40 wt.%) blended with PP on the properties of the PP/PF board were investigated. SEM images depicted the formation of spherical protuberances and voids in the PP/PF board with the increasing PF content. The size of the protuberances was also increased with the PF content. The formation of void could be due to the release of water, ammonia and formaldehyde during the blending and hot-press processes. The density, moisture content and maximum water absorption of the PP/PF board increased with the increase of PF content. The TG curves of the PP/PF boards revealed that the PF and PP in the PP/PF board decomposed at different temperature ranges, i.e., 200-420 and 425-480 °C, respectively. The addition of PF to PP reduced the activation energy of the first stage thermal decomposition of the PP/PF boards. The addition of 10 wt.% PF was the optimum content to produce PP/PF board with optimum mechanical properties.

AB - Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin prepared from phenol-liquefied empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres was blended with polypropylene (PP) using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of the PF content (10, 20, 30 and40 wt.%) blended with PP on the properties of the PP/PF board were investigated. SEM images depicted the formation of spherical protuberances and voids in the PP/PF board with the increasing PF content. The size of the protuberances was also increased with the PF content. The formation of void could be due to the release of water, ammonia and formaldehyde during the blending and hot-press processes. The density, moisture content and maximum water absorption of the PP/PF board increased with the increase of PF content. The TG curves of the PP/PF boards revealed that the PF and PP in the PP/PF board decomposed at different temperature ranges, i.e., 200-420 and 425-480 °C, respectively. The addition of PF to PP reduced the activation energy of the first stage thermal decomposition of the PP/PF boards. The addition of 10 wt.% PF was the optimum content to produce PP/PF board with optimum mechanical properties.

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